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FIRST AND SECOND 



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FIRST AND SECOND 



REPORTS 



MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY 



IN CHINA: 



MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS. 



Hospital Reports, rftc. 



jW a c a o : 

S . WELLS WILLIAMS 
1841. 









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NOTE 



The anomalous state of affairs in China, and 1 other causes, having 
occasioned a neglect of publishing the first Report of the Society, it is 
now united to the second Report, — and the two, together with the 
later reports of the hospitals, and an abstract of earlier ones, form a 
complete account of the Society's operations from the commencement. 
These documents, now submitted to the friends and patrons of the 
Society, comprise the following table of 

CONTENTS. 

The report and minutes of proceedings, 29th Nov., 1838 page 3 

The report and minutes of proceedings, July 1st, 1841 - 12 

Treasurer's accounts ... jg 

Report of the hospital at Chusan by W. Lockhart - 21 

Report of the hospital at Macao by B. Hobson ... 34 

Brief abstract of all the successive hospital reports - - 41 

Regulations of the Society - - - 64 

Bye-Laws of the Society ... 66 

List of life directors, life members, agents, &,c. - 67 



MINUTES 

of the First Annual Meeting of the 

MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

TN CHINA. 



The First Annual Meeting of the Medical Missionary Society in 
China was held in the rooms of the General Chamber of Commerce, 
at Canton, on Thursday, the 29th of November, 1838, at noon. 
Present: — the Rev. Dr. Parker, Messrs. Jardine, Wetmore, Green, 
Bell, Heerjeebhoy Rustomjee, Turner, Dinshaw Furdoonjee, Forbes, 
Rev. Mr. Bridgman, Messrs. Blenkin, Lay, and Morrison. The 
senior Vice-president, the Rev. Dr. Parker, m. d., took the chair. 

REPORT. 

Little more than half a year having elapsed since the 'suggestions,' 
first published in 1836, were fully acted upon in the formation of this 
Society, your committee, in this their first report, have but few re- 
marks to offer. From the great interest taken in the objects of the 
Society, both by those resident here and by passing strangers, as 
evinced by the pecuniary support afforded, and by the frequent visits 
paid to the hospitals, they feel assured, however, that in future re- 
ports there will be no want either of topics fot reflection or themes 
for rejoicing and thankfulness. 

In compliance with the request of the Society, made to Dr. Parker 
at its last meeting, the House at Macao, recently purchased for a 



Hospital, was opened to patients during the past summer, and remain- 
ed open from the 5th of July to the 1st of October. In the interim 
the Hospital House at Canton was thoroughly repaired, and three 
new rooms were added, by which the means of affording accommo- 
dation to in-door patients have been greatly increased. These 
repairs and alterations having been completed, and the time which 
had been named to the patients in Canton for Dr. Parker's return 
being elapsed, it became necessary to close, for a season, the Hospital 
at Macao. Hopes had been entertained that the arrival of a physici- 
an from England or America would have averted this necessity. 
Though these anticipations have been disappointed, your committee 
nevertheless have cause to believe, that the means of re-opening the 
Hospital at Macao will shortly be afforded. They have credible in- 
formation, that a medical gentleman of experience would embark 
from England, in August last, for this country, by way of Batavia, 
under the auspices of the London Missionary Society.* His arrival 
in. China may therefore be looked for ere the close of the present, or 
at an early period in the coming, year. 

The report of the quarterly term during which the Hospital at 
Macao was open is now in the press, and will shortly be published. 
The number of patients during the term was 700, which added to 
the number during eight quarterly terms in Canton, affords a total of 
more than 6000 persons, who, by the pecuniary aid of this Society, 
and the personal exertions of the senior Vice-president, have, with 
but few exceptions, received permanent relief from suffering, — while 
a large number of them have been restored from partial or total blind- 
ness to all the blessings of good and useful sight. The almost uniform 
success of the medical and surgical treatment at the institutions of 
the Society, the growing confidence of the Chinese, which is the 
natural result of this, their grateful sense of the benefits conferred 
upon them through the skill and philanthropy of foreigners, — are so 
many powerful encouragements- to perseverance in the pursuit of the 
noble objects for which we are united. And so persevering, we may 
look forward with confidence- to the time, when, having afforded to 
the intelligent youth of China a good medical education, we shall no 
longer confine our efforts to the small circle within which our resi- 
dence is now circumscribed, but may be enabled first to send forth 

" "- ■ i ■ ■ '■• ■ •> " . ' "- • "•■ i 'ii 



our practitioners, and ultimately perhaps to follow them ourselves, 
through the length and breadth of the empire. It cannot be requisite 
to do more than merely allude to the advantages that must result from 
the impressions which will thus be everywhere made in our favor — 
advantages affecting us all alike, whether engaged in mercantile 
business, or in the pursuit of science, or in conveying to the ignorant 
and the debased, principles of knowledge, calculated to elevate, to 
enlighten, and to benefit both in this life and in the life to come. 

Having alluded to the report of the Hospital at Macao, it may be 
appropriate to draw attention to two passages in the prefatory and 
concluding remarks that accompany it. Tk. Parker, in referring to 
the house, which was purchased and put into repair by Mr. Colledge, 
with a direct view to its being occupied as an institution of this So- 
ciety, thus speaks: — "Often has the sincerest gratitude been felt 
towards the benevolent members of this Society, who have procured 
such an asylum for the afflicted Chinese, and to the respected Presi- 
dent whose judgment first selected the premises, when, — walking 
through its capacious and numerous apartments, — I have witnessed 
the comfortable accommodation afforded to the inmates, to many of 
whom it seemed almost a palace, in comparison with the narrow 
cells they call their homes. The building is capable of accommodat- 
ing two hundred patients. It has nineteen spacious rooms on the 
second story, well ventilated ; and as many corresponding ones on 
the ground floor ; a garden, and extensive compound, with three 
wells of water — in the rear; and a yard in front. The building is 
of brick, strongly built, and the whole of the ground (say a third of 
an acre) belonging to it, is surrounded by a substantial wall. It is 
in a healthy locality, overlooking the waters of the inner harbor, and 
having good access both by land and water." 

In concluding his report, Dr. Parker remarks; "It is learned with 
much satisfaction that the object of this Society has been favorably 
regarded both in England and Scotland. Sir Henry Halford, Presi- 
dent of the London College of Physicians, in an address before the 
College reported in the London Medical Gazette for February last, 
in exhibiting some of the results of successful medical practice, took 
occasion to allude to the operations of this Society with approbation 
of its principles. ' Among the individuals present were H. R. H. the 
duke of Cambridge, the archbishop of Canterbury, the duke of Wel- 
lington, sir Robert Peel, and many distinguished members of the 
Church, the Bar, and the Senate.' The address is said to have been 



listened to with great attention, and to have excited general interest. 
What will be the result remains to be disclosed. It is occasion of 
gratulation that the subject has thus been commended to the atten- 
tion of men who have it in their power in various ways to promote it, 
and we anticipate with confidence a result favorable to the advance- 
ment of our objects, and promotive of the welfare of the vast popula- 
tion of China. — From a widely circulated Scottish Journal, it appears 
that our objects have also been auspiciously commended to the atten- 
tion of the enlightened and philanthropic public of that country." 

It remains only to refer to the Treasurer's accounts, whereby it 
will appear, that, notwithstanding the necessarily heavy outlay, arising 
from the purchase and partial furnishing of the Hospital at Macao, a 
balance of $780.. 71, still remains to the credit of the Society. This 
balance will not, however, be sufficient to meet the current expendi- 
ture of the Hospital in Canton alone. And our hope being, speedily 
to resume operations at Macao (the Hospital in which place must 
ultimately — from the difference of situation and extent of premises — 
afford the best school for the medical education of young Chinese), 
as well as to continue and extend our operations in Canton, — the aid 
of a benevolent public is looked to for the requisite means. The in- 
creasing interest taken in our objects affords sufficient assurance that 
an appeal to that public will not be made in vain. 



The report of the committee of management was read and submit- 
ted to the meeting. 

The report having been read, G. T. Lav, esq., then rose to move 
its acceptance, and spoke in terms nearly as follows: 

" It is not necessary that I should take up any time in insisting 
upon the value of medical and surgical aid : every one who has felt 
disease himself, or witnessed it in a friend or relative, has had the 
conviction of their worth and importance brought home to him and 
made a part of his mental associations. The Chinese have a mate- 
ria medica that is well supplied with drugs, they display great variety, 
neatness, and care in their pharmaceutical operations, we see them 
busied in dispensing prescriptions, while the size of the shop, its fur- 
niture, and every circumstance about it, combine to assure us, that 
every thing is done in conformity with a steady and comprehensive 



system. The manifestations of disease, and the variovis phases which 
it puts on, from its first beginning till it terminates in death or recove- 
ry, have in many cases been well marked and faithfully recorded by 
them. Their experience which resembles the ifcvafice and raptim of 
Satyrion, embraces many valuable observations, and their practical 
skill enables them to deal successfully with remittent fevers and 
other maladies, which, according to their classification, arise from 
cold or bad air, or from some disturbance of the healthy equilibrium. 
But where disease assumes a malignant character, where its treat- 
ment depends upon a proper knowledge of the situation and function 
of the parts affected, or extirpation is called for, it is clear, that it is 
far beyond their reach, and must be left to take its own course, with 
the certainty that it could only be made worse by their interference. 
It is here that the man with the enlightened knowledge and the 
surgical adroitness of the west finds an appropriate field, and does 
for a Chinese what no native practitioner can do for him. 

" But there are other advantages, besides the relief of human suffer- 
ing, however great that may be, which are intimately connected with 
the objects of this Society, and deserve our most attentive conside- 
ration. 

" In the first place, it teaches us what the Chinese really are. 
We have become accustomed to hear of their prejudices, their ex- 
clusive spirit, their repugnance to and distrust of foreigners. Now 
in this respect our hearsays and all our surmises are completely over- 
set by what we may see any day at our hospitals. Crowds of Chinese 
of both sexes, afflicted with all kinds of disorders, soliciting aid in the 
altitude of respect and humility, and listening to advice and assur- 
ances, as if nothing but absolute truth could fall from the lips of the 
physician. To behold a female, unaccompanied perhaps by a single 
friend or relative, brought in and tied hand and foot to the operator's 
table, and there submit to a most painful operation, without uttering 
a sigh or a groan, teaches us, in terms that can neither be misunder- 
stood nor prevaricated, that a Chinese, upon proper grounds, is able 
to exercise the most unbounded confidence in the wisdom and good- 
ness of the stranger. We learn what I rejoice to find proofs of from 
different quarters, that he has a most keen perception of what is good 
for him, and courage to embrace it, whenever it can be made appar- 
ent to him : that he has a stock of good sense and good feeling upon 
which his social prosperity is based : and so we arrive at a discovery 
.which, whether we seek to make him wiser by our sciences, or bet- 



ter by our religion, opens to us prospects of the most encouraging 
anil delightful character. 

" In the second place, it makes the Chinese acquainted with the 
authentic nature of our principles, and the kindness of our feelings 
towards them — a most necessary preliminary in the work of doing 
them good, whether it be in matters touching this world or that 
which is to come. There is nothing more obvious than that a Chi- 
nese entirely misunderstands our character and situation ; he thinks 
we have no institutions for learning, are strangers to the softer refine- 
ments and courtesies of life, and recognise no moral distinctions, are 
unconscious of the intrinsic beauty of a virtuous action. When assured 
that he labors under a mistake, he hears with incredulity in his looks; 
when he witnesses proofs of wisdom and goodness, he is filled with 
wonder and surprise. We find by experience, that he is not apt to 
forget either our good words or our good deeds, but if there were any 
oblivions tendency in this way, it would be corrected by the restora- 
tion of sight to the blind, the removal of excrescences that preyed 
upon the vitals of the sufferer, and so on ; for he bears a testimony 
which he will convey to his grave, written with indelible characters 
upon his body, that China, with a swarming population, cannot pro- 
duce a man, that can at once vie in skill and humanity with the 
stranger. Where could we find a better pledge, a better earnest to 
assure them, that our science is founded on truth, our religion full of 
benevolence? If we have patience to give these endeavors time to 
work, such a conviction, waxing stronger and stronger, is inevitable, 
— the collateral results, of unknown magnitude and importance. 

" In the third place, we shall have opportunities of studying the 
mind of a Chinese, and of tracing all its essential characteristics. 
We shall find out wherein it differs from our own, what it has in 
common with ourselves; for a sick person, as by a sort of instinct, 
opens his heart as well as his case to his physician. In the west, we 
often see this exemplified, but not more frequently there than in Chi- 
na. AH ranks, ages, and sexes, tell their story, and reply to ques- 
tions, with child-like simplicity, and make good what philosophy 
would teach us, that to speak the truth is a quality naturally inherent 
in the will of man.-^ Everything about their domestic history, ways 
of thinking, social feelings, nay the very penetralia of their hearts 
and dwellings, are brought under contemplation, and thus we may 
gather hints and reflections which will be hereafter of the highest 
value to us. 



9 

" In addition to these advantages, we may mention the influence 
that enterprises like the one before us are likely to exert upon medi- 
cal science itself. 

" (I.) Maladies, in their nature and frequency, differ in different 
countries. A disorder, which is transient and occurs only here and 
there in some places, may be studied in all its features again and 
again in others. The phenomena which the same disease exhibits in 
one place, it never assumes in another, — a consideration that leads us 
to make a difference between such as are common to it in all places, 
and such as are not, and so to delineate with philosophic accuracy 
what its essential character consists in. If at the same time we at- 
tend to the climate, soil, water, and relative situation of the country, 
with the diet and habits of the people, we give a new and wide bear- 
ing to an important part of medical study — the existing causes of 
disease — and, of consequence, the means by which they may be 
avoided. By this means we shall be able to complete our system of 
nosology, and to make out a uniform encyclopedia of diseases. 

" (2.) If the existing causes of disease have a kind of geographic 
distribution, the appropriate remedies seem to have something very 
analogous to it, so that each country has its peculiar drug as well as 
its peculiar disorders, as if the same Providence that sent the afflic- 
tion sent also its cure with it. Each country has its pharmacy, remar- 
kable for some drug not found elsewhere, and generally proves after 
investigation far more comprehensive than we were at first inclined 
to suppose. The Chinese and the Japanese have each their own, 
both of which abound with excellent and powerful medicines. Now 
by practicing among the natives, we are made acquainted with these 
remedies, their modes of application, efficacy, and so forward, by 
ways that are as good as actual experiment, without any of its risk. 
Hence we are enabled to enlarge our knowledge of remedies, and to 
enrich our pharmacopoeias with an account of substances hitherto 
unknown or untried. 

" (3.) Every nation and tribe has what we may call its national 
therapeutics and nosology. It has some conceptions of disease 
peculiar to itself, some modes of treatment not observed elsewhere. 
In principle and extent they may be very humble, in detail united 
with error and mistake, but I think we should have to search a long 
time before we found one that would not afford us one fact for our 
information, or one hint to awaken our curiosity. These subjects 
would necessarily fall under the notice of an enlightened practitioner, 
who with patieirt kindness had given himself up to the purpose of 



Id 

doing good, winch lie would riot fail to record and communicate to 
the world, for the benefit of science and humanity. 

" I am so impressed with the importance of these considerations 
that I have determined to make the system of gratuitous relief for the 
sick in some sort universal. I may not succeed in my first attempts, 
but I will continue, while life and health last, to pursue my object till 
I have attained it. We have societies for giving the Bible, the gospel, 
useful knowledge, and so on, to the world, — we will also have a so- 
ciety for giving the benefits of rational medicine to the world. Hu- 
manity shall be taught to flow in new channels, and to wear names 
and designations unused before. Science shall earn new honors, 
and gain fresh accessions to her strength. The motives that incite 
us to deal out our good things to all mankind are of the highest and 
noblest kind, while the success that waits upon every attempt invites 
us to bring all the means we can spare, and lay them upon the altar 
of Him who giveth liberally and upbraideth not. On my return to 
England, I shall not forget the promise I made to this Society at its 
formation, for I am sure it needs only to be known in order to be 
supported." 

He then moved, J. C. Green, esq., seconded, and it was — 
Resolved, That the report which has been read be accepted, and 
printed under the direction of the committee. 

The Treasurer's accounts, duly audited, were then read, and laid 
upon the table. It appeared that the disbursements of the Society 
had been, during the year, $1741; the receipts since 10th May, 
$754; and that the balance in the treasurer's hands was $780. 

Lists of Books, Instruments, Paintings, and Medicines, that had 
been presented to the Society, having been read, it was — 
On the motion of Mr. Bell, seconded by Mr. Wetmore, — 
Resolved, That this Society gratefully acknowledges the valuable 
donation of works on ophthalmic surgery, the surgical instruments, 
and specimens of morbid anatomy, received from T. R. Colledge, 
esq., its president, as also the donation of books, &c, received from 
other gentlemen. 

The chairman then stated, that Mr. Colledge, on his recent depart- 
ure from China, had left nearly the whole of his medical library be- 
hind, with the desire that it should be offered to the Society on con- 
dition of his being enabled in return to furnish himself with a similar 
library in England. The prices not having been attached to the 
several works, the committee were unable to state the precise value 
of the collection: the balance in the treasurer's hands, however did 



11 

not <jpem sufficient to authorize the appropiiation, at the moment, of 
any sum for the purchase of the books. He went on to state, that 
the books were nevertheless being priced, and that expectations were 
entertained of being enabled to meet the cost of them without bur- 
dening the funds of the Society, or applying for a private subscription 
from the members. 

A series of By-laws, referred at the last general meeting for fur 
ther consideration, was read; when it was — 

On the motion of W. S. Wetmore, esq , seconded by W. Blenkin, 
esq. — 

Resolved, That the By-laws just read be sanctioned, and printed 
with the Report of the Committee. 

The Chairman having called a ballot for election of officers, it was 
on the motion of W. Blenkin, esq., seconded by Heerjeebhoy 
Rustomjee, esq. — 

Resolved, That the gentlemen now forming the committee of 
management be requested to continue in office until the next annual 
meeting. 

The Chairman begged to say a few words, before dissolving the 
meeting. He would revert to the address made to the meeting that 
morning by Mr. Lay. Sincerely did he wish that gentleman all suc- 
cess in the efforts which he had expressed his intention of making, 
on his return to England, to set on foot a society with purposes like 
those of this Society, but with a wider range. Thai gentleman is in 
possession of the peculiar advantages of an eye-witness. Having 
visited many of the isles of the Pacific, and of the Indian archipelago, 
also Lewchew, and having for some time resided in China, he can 
' speak of the things that he has seen, and testify of what he knows.' 
He has been enabled to assure himself personally of the readiness of 
many of the nations, living out of the pale of Christendom and of 
western civilization, to avail themselves of the medical skill and 
kindness of European practitioners. He has seen their confidence, 
their gratitude, and can justly appreciate the adaptedness of such 
means, as preparatives for the attainment of those blessings in which 
rest the highest ends of man's existence. He is aware, too, of the 
sanction such operations receive from that Book to distribute which 
he left his family — the lively greetings of that family may he soon 
unalloyedly enjoy ! 

The meeting then adjourned. 

Peter Parkf.k, Chairman 



MINUTES 

of the Second Annual Meeting of the 

MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

IN CHINA. 



The Second Annual Meeting of the members and friends of the So- 
ciety was held at the residence of A. Anderson, esq, at Macao, on 
Thursday, the 1st July, 1841. At 2 p. m., the Rev. E. C. Bridgman, 
vice-president, took the chair. There were present, the Rev. Messrs. 
Bridgman, Boone, Ball, and Roberts, and A. Anderson, W. Bell, W. 
Leslie, W. Blenkin, P. Young, J. Holliday, B. Hobson, W. Lock- 
hart, S. W. Williams, John Slade, J. R. Morrison, esquires. 

Mr. Bridgman opened the meeting, by observing, that the friends 
of the Society had now been called together with the view of inform- 
ing the public of the proceedings of the Society, and of affording 
to the members an opportunity of electing new office-bearers. 

The report of the committee was then read, detailing the proceed- 
ing of the Society's agents since the last general meeting, on the 
20th November, 1838; the continuance of Dr. Parker at Canton 
until the close of June, 1840, when he proceeded on a long purposed 
visit to the United States ; the consecutive arrivals of Mr. Lockhart 
and Mr. Hobson from England, and of Mr. Diver from the United 
States ; and the return of the latter gentleman to America, owing to 
continued ill health. — The treasurer's account showed a balance in 
the hands of the treasurer, on the :30th of June, of 1561 dollars, car- 
ried to the credit of the Society, — after an expenditure, since the 
30th of November, 1838, of little more than 1700 dollars. 



!« 

The medical repoits of Messrs Hobson and Lockhart, of l he hos- 
pital at Macao, since August 1st, 1839, and at Chusan between 
September 1840, and February 1841, were aUo read It was then 
moved by Mr Bell, seconded by Mr. Blenkin, and resolved, 

" That the several reports which have just been read be accepted 
and approved." 

Moved by Mr. Blenkin, seconded by Mr. Williams, and re- 
solved, 

''That the best thanks of the meeting be returned to Messrs 
Lockhart «.nd Hobson, for their very able.^ services, and interesting 
reports." 

Mr. Hobson returned acknowledgments both for himself and 
Mr. Lockhart. 

The meeting then proceeded to ballot for the election of office- 
bearers. The result t>f the ballot was: 

Prtsident. T. R. Colledge, Esq. 
Vice-Presidents. 
Rev. P Parker, m. d Rev. E. C. Bridgman. 

VV. Jardine, Esq. 1 Lancelot Dent, Esq. 



R. Inglis, Esq. 
A. Anderson, Esq. 
G. T Lay, Esq. 



William Bell, Esq. 
James Matheson, Esq. 
W. Blenkin, Esq. 



Recording Secretary. J. R. Morrison, Esq. 
Corresponding Secretary. Rev. S. R. Brown. 
Treasurer. W. Delano, Jr. Esq. 
Auditor of Accounts. W. Leslie, Esq. 
On the motion of Mr. Hobson, seconded by Mr. Boone, the 
thanks of the meeting were returned to the committee for their past 
services. 

On the motion of Mr. Leslie, seconded by the other members of 
the committee, the thanks of the Society were returned to Mr. Mor- 
rison, for his services as secretary. 

On the motion of Mr. Anderson, seconded by Mr. Lockhart, 
the committee were instructed to collect the annual subscriptions 
due, and to endeavor to improve the funds of the Society, by obtain- 
ing donations in its behalf. 
The meeting then adjourned, 

E. C. Br ,d gman, Chairman 



II 



SECOND REPORT 

The disturbed state of affairs in China for two years past, and the 
frequent dispersion of the community incident upon that condition 
of things, have hitherto prevented the committee of management 
from calling together a general meeting of the Society since the time 
that its first stated meeting was held, in the month of November, 
18:38. The objects of the Society have in the meanwhile, however, 
by no means been neglected : and, although its operations were for a 
time hampered by the slate of public affairs just alluded to, yet have 
the institutions maintained by the Society yielded, upon the whole, 
not less of happy results than in days of greater freedom from dis- 
turbing influences. 

It is a year since the committee, in publishing the hospital reports 
thought it their duty to give to the public some particulars of their 
proceedings during the time that had intervened since the friends of 
the Society had met together. But as there may be those now pre- 
sent who have not had opportunities of perusing that statement, it 
will be not inappropriate here briefly to recapitulate the particulars 
of what was then published. 

When the whole English community had been compelled by the 
proceedings of the Chinese government to leave Canton, Dr. Parker 
was enabled, as an American citizen, to remain there. The house 
which had hitherto been always occupied by him as the Ophthalmic 
Hospital had been shut up, during all the time that the foreign com- 
munity was held in confinement, from March to May, 1839; and to 
repeated requests afterwards nude that it might be reopened, the 
senior hong-merchant invariably returned a decided refusal. Dr. 
Parker was so fortunate, however, as to find a convenient place for 
receiving applicants (very few in-door patients being admitted), in 
the dispensary of Messrs. Cox and Anderson, both then at Macao. 
The report of his proceedings there during the year 1839, as also a 
previous report for the last quarter of 1838, have been already pub- 
lished by the committee. Dr. Parker remained at Canton till the 
month of June, 1840; when, upon the establishment of a blockade 
of the port, he closed the hospital ; and, with the full approbation of 
the committee, took that occasion to pay a long-purposed visit to his 
native land. He went with the expectation of returning to resume 
his labors here after an absence of a year or two. 

At the time of the Society's last meeting, the 20th of November, 
1838, the hopes entertained of the arrival of a physician from Eng- 



13 

land or America, to extend t tie Society's operations had not yet been 
realized : and after the hospital at Macao had been kept open by Dr. 
Parker, during the months of July, August, and September, it had 
become necessary to close it on the return of that gentleman to his 
usual field of labor at Canton in October. In the following January, 
however, the expectations of the Society were gratified by the arrival 
from England of William Lockhart, esq., m. it. c. s.; a gentleman of 
whose high professional talents and character most of the members 
present have long since become acquainted. He came out in con- 
nection with the Loudon Missionary Society; and having immediate- 
ly offered his services to the committee, they were not less imme- 
diately accepted. On the 2Sth of February, 1839, the hospital at 
Macao was accordingly placed under his charge. The study of the 
language engaged all his attention at the first, and the hospital 
was not therefore formally opened (though some few patients were 
received) until the 1st of July. Unfortunately, it had not been long 
open, when the measures of the Chinese government against all bear- 
ing the name of Englishmen, compelled Mr. Lockhart, on the 13th 
o( August, again to close it. 

Seeing little to be done at that time, Mr. Lockhart, with the ap- 
probation of those members of the committee whom he was able to 
consult, resolved on spending soma months at Batavia, with the view 
of further studying the Chinese language under the tuition of Mr. Med- 
hurst, and of gaining an acquaintance with the Chinese in those parts. 
He left China in September, 1839, and did not return till towards the 
close of June, 1840. 

In the interim, two other medical missionaries, Wm. Beck Diver, 
m. d., from the United States, and Benjamin Hobson M. b., m. r. c. s., 
from England, — the former in connection with the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the latter in connection with 
the London Missionary Society, — had arrived in China, and notified 
to your committee their desire of offering to the Society their ser- 
vices. This offer was made, and their services accepted on the 1st 
of July, last year ; and Mr. Lockhart having, August 1st, reopened the 
Macao hospital, these gentlemen gave him their assistance until his 
removal to Chusan, at the end of that month when the hospital was 
placed, for the future, under their joint care. In December, however, 
Mr. Diver's health failing, he was compelled to take a voyage for its 
recovery ; and finding little benefit from a short trip, taken in the 
first instance, to the straits of Malacca, he was induced to proceed 
from Singapore lo the United States Mr. Hobson has continued in 



charge oi the hospital till now, receiving assistance from Mr. Lock- 
hart, since that gentleman's return from Chusan in March last. 
Mr. Hobson's report is in the hands of the secretary, and will be 
read to the meeting. 

During the time that Canton was thrown open to merchants of 
England, by the occupation of the river by the British forces, in 
April last, Mr. Hobson made a renewed attempt to reopen the hos- 
pital at Canton ; but the senior hong-merchant continued to refuse 
permission for the old house to be reoccupied. It was in contempla- 
tion to engage another house ; but, looking at the uncertain posture 
of affairs, and the probability of having soon again to close it, that 
step was not taken, 

Allusion has been made to the removal of Mr. Lockhart from 
Macao, in August last year, to Chusan, and the meeting will have 
pleasure in hearing the interesting report of his operations there. He 
opened his house, in the town of Chusan, or Tinghae, on the 13th of 
September ; and it was constantly crowded with applicants for me- 
dical relief from that time till the day of his embarkation, the 22d 
of February, when the removal of all the British forces from thence 
of course rendered his longer stay there impracticable. While wait- 
ing to be guided by the progress of events in the choice of a new 
station, Mr. Lockhart continues to improve himself in a knowledge of 
the language, and to afford assistance to Mr. Hobson in the care 
of the hospital at Macao. 

The number of patients that were admitted into the hospital at 
Canton during the year 1839, was about 800, making an aggregate, 
since the commencement of the Institution in November, 1835, of 
about 7000. For the six months of 1840, that it remained open, Dr. 
Parker has left no report; but the eagerness for medical aid, and the 
number of patients, were never greater than at the time he left Can- 
ton, on the 17th of June. — The number of patients admitted to the 
hospital at Macao, during one month and a half of 1839, and eleven 
months (from August 1st to June 30th) of 1840-41, was 1457, — 
making, with those admitted during three months of 1838, a total of 
2150. At Chusan, during of a period of little more than five months, 
amid much greater opportunities of free access to the people, the 
number of patients attended to was 3502. 

The. treasurer's accounts are submitted to the examination of the 
meeting. In those exhibited at the first annual meeting in Novem- 
ber 1838, after an expenditure, during three quarters, of $1741.85 
a balance was shown of §780.71. The expenditures since that date 



lv- 

has been 81631.07, and the receipts 82411.98, leaving a balance in 
the hands of the treasurer, at this date, of $1561.62. 

It remains to be observed, that, owing to the departure from Chini 
of several office-bearers of the Society, the committee have found it 
necessary to make some provisional appointments, which they hope 
will meet the approbation of the meeting. Mr. W. S. Wetmore had 
become treasurer on Mr. Archer's departure from China, when he 
and Mr. Green, the auditor of accounts, both notified their return 
home. Mr. Snow and Mr. Leslie were then requested to fill their re- 
spective places. But Mr. Snow being also called away, it became 
necessary to fill up anew the office of treasurer : Mr. Delano accepted 
it, at the request of the committee. Mr. King having also left China, 
Mr. Brown of the Morrison Education Society has undertaken the 
duties of corresponding secretary. Though the president and all 
but two vice-presidents are at present absent from China, yet as these 
officers have no specific dulies to perform, it has not appeared neces- 
sary to supply their places. 

In conclusion, the committee have to hope, that the Society will 
feel satisfaction with the proceedings of its agents; and with this 
hope they now resign their offices into the hands of the meeting. — 
They cannot refrain from expressing gratitude to Him whose creatures 
we all are, for opportunities afforded them of benefiting their fellow- 
men, while they look forward, with confident expectation to continual- 
ly enlarging fields of usefulness, and increasing opportunities of con- 
veying to the 7>iitids of their patients the healing influences of moral 
care, and especially of the hopes that the Gospel alone offers. 



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REPORT 



Of the Medical Missionary Society's operations 



at Chusan in 1840-41. 



By William Xaockhart. 



The island of Chusan bavins been brought under Britisb influence, 
it was judged desirable, by tbe committee of the Medical Missionary 
Society, to send one of its agents to Tinghae, the chief town of that 
district, with the view of establishing a Hospital there, for the relief 
of the natives, and for carrying on the objects of the Society, as far 
as possible, and thus in a new station to test the advantages of this 
means for obtaining a beneficial influence over the minds of the peo- 
ple. 

Accordingly, the operations of the M. M. S. were commenced at 
Chusan, September 13th, 1840, and terminated February 22d, 1841 ; 
during this period, as will be seen by the list of cases, 3502 patients 
were attended to. 

At the first establishment of the hospital, the inhabitants did not 
understand its object; but by attention being paid to some of the sick, 
who were met in the streets, and by explaining to others that me- 
dicine would be given for the relief of their ailments, if they applied 
for it, some few were induced to attend; and shortly afterwards great 
numbers came daily at all hours, desiring that medicines might be 
given to them. At some times as many as 200 old and new cases 
presented themselves in one day, but this large number was unusual; 
from 80 to 120 being the common amount on fine days during the 
latter weeks the hospital was open. 

Besides attendance on such persons as resorted to tbe hospital, 
several were attended at their own homes ; by which air opportunity 



was given to observe the management of families in that part of the 
country, and freer intercourse maintained with the people, than might 
otherwise have been practicable. Occasionally, when parties were 
sent to various parts of the island, visits were made to distant villages, 
and medicines afforded to many afflicted with disease; and where the 
cases could not, for various reasons, be attended to at the moment, 
cards of direction were given, to enable them to come to the city, 
where they could receive the required aid. — Papers stating the nature 
of the hospital were also sent to the villages, in various vallies; and 
in a short time patients came from all parts of the island, seeking 
relief; also from Ningpo, Hangchow foo, (the capital of the pro- 
vince), and other neighboring towns on the main, as well as from 
Pooto, Lowang, and other islands: many Fuhkeen men from the 
trading junks at Sing-kea-mun (a large seaport town at the S. E. 
point of the island) were applicants. Indeed, the number of patients 
from the city itself was very small, compared with those who came 
from a distance. During the last six weeks of residence, the number 
of individuals who came from Lowang, a large island about 30 miles 
south of Chusan, was sometimes 40 or 50 in one day. Of these, 
some, who required frequent attention, remained in the city ; others 
came and went as their medicine was expended, or according to the 
time prescribed to them. 

In respect to the climate, it may be observed that during the south 
monsoon, the weather was hot, and sometimes very oppressive — the 
thermometer in the shade frequently standing at 90° during the day: 
the average for the night being about 72°. During the north mon- 
soon, the weather was generally very cold, with fine clear days. 
Towards the latter end of December, 1840, and during the whole of 
January and February, 1841, the thermometer was as low as 25° or 
26° during the night ; and occasionally, when the wind was high, it 
stood at 28° during the day. Of course, at this time, there was much 
ice on all the ponds, though the duration of this low temperature was 
never long enough to cause the canals to be frozen over. Little 
snow fell during the winter, and never in sufficient quantity to cover 
the plain. The hills round the city were once only capped with snow 
for three or four days. The natives of the island said that the cold 
of winter was frequently much more severe, that ice was very thick, 
and that much snow lay in the vallies. 

It may be asked, — seeing the favorable position of the island (in 
lat. 30° N., and long. 122° 5' E.), and the comparative mildness of 
the climate, — does much disease exist among the natives themselves 



i:. 

01 was il from particular causes alone Uial tlie British troops suffered 
so severely while located there 1 

Several intelligent Chinese, when questioned on the subject of the 
prevalence of fever, said, that it was very common over the whole 
island, but especially so in the vallies where the fields were kept con- 
stantly under water, and that during last year disease prevailed to a 
very much greater degree than is generally the case, and this not 
only on the island of Chusan, but about Ningpo, Chinhae, Hang- 
chow foo, and other places. Indeed the number of Chinese, who 
were seen to be suffering under fever or its consequences, was very 
great. Some parts of the city, being very low and damp, were ex- 
tremely unhealthy ; of this the chehe'en, or magistrate's office, was a 
striking example, for of the whole number of British officers, civil 
and military, who lived there, not one escaped severe attacks, either 
of fever or dysentery, and the place had to be evacuated, and other 
quarters chosen for the magistracy. There can be no doubt that the 
malaria exists to a powerful degree, in nearly the whole of the val- 
lies, arising from the excessive moisture in which the surface of the 
ground is kept by the banking up of the streams from the hills, and 
during wet weather the canals and dikes overflow, and the country is 
flooded with water. During the summer months, the days are very 
hot; and at night the dews are exceedingly heavy, so that if any one 
be exposed at this time, their clothes soon become saturated with 
moisture. 

As to the reasons to be assigned for the degree of sickness that 
prevailed among the troops while at Chusan, this is not the place to 
speak fully of them, and doubtless the medical gentlemen connected 
with the force will publish portions of their own reports. But a few 
of the causes may be hinted at, of which the most prominent were— 
the laborious but unavoidable duties which the men had to perform — 
their exposure to the sun by day and to the heavy dews by night, 
united to which was the want of fresh provisions, which could not at 
first be at all procured. — When the strength of the men was worn 
down, being exposed to the malaria of the locality in which they 
were, fever seized upon them, followed by severe and almost incura- 
ble dysentery, which proved fatal to a most fearful extent. To so 
great a degree did these diseases prevail, that of the whole force very 
few of the men escaped more or less severe attacks. 

It is^by no means clear, whether the island of Chusan would be at 
all more unhealthy than any other place of the same latitude, were 
it not for Hit; mode adopted in the cultivation of rice by means of 



■u 

stagnant water. If a good system of draining the fields were esta- 
blished, or even the flood-gates removed from the streams, whereby 
the water is dammed up, it is very probable that the land would in a 
few months become dry, and the excess of malaria would subside, 
its cause being in a great measure removed. It is impossible to say 
whether the ground could be thoroughly dried, and whether this 
would effect the desired change or not ; it is at least probable that 
it would do so, and if the island be ever again in British hands it 
might be tried. 

The mode of irrigation is well shown in the extensive valley of 
Yungtung, in which Tinghae is situated. Sluices are placed in all 
the streams and the whole valley is one swamp, indeed so wet, that it 
is impossible to walk across the valley, except on raised flagged path- 
ways. In all the other vallies where a stream is available, the same 
mode is adopted, and by much the greater portion. Yentsung, the 
next valley to the above, is a pool of shallow water. And that mala- 
ria should be rife in such districts, when during the hot summer 
months so large a surface of mud is exposed to the rays of the sun, 
cannot be wondered at. 

In illustration of the report of cases, it may be well to make a few 
general observations on those diseases which most prominently pre- 
sented themselves. 

Intermittent Fever. This disease prevails to a very great extent 
among the people; and from all that could be ascertained, regarding 
its prevalence in various districts, b\ repeated inquiries of respectable 
Chinese and native medical m \\ \h reTj getter ft 1 !. 

Of the cases which presented; those in which quinine was ex- 
hibited soon recovered : but this remedy was only given to patients 
who came regularly; to others general remedies were given, which 
appeared in some cases to be beneficial. Several Chinese physicians 
also applied for relief from this disease, and finding that the quinine 
was of service to them, would sometimes bring friends for the medi- 
cine. They themselves used tiger's bones, ginseng, and other things ; 
but acknowledged that their remedies were not very effectual. Some 
were pressing in their intreaties for a supply of quinine, which could 
not be given, as the quantity on hand was very inadequate to the 
large demands for it. 

The two cases of paralysis of the arms from torture, occurred in 
respectable men. One of these was in the country, endeavoring to 
buy provisions and other things for sale in the city, when some Chi- 
nese soldiers seized him, and having beaten him severely, tied hi* 



arms behind him round a tree for a length of time, until he had lost 
all power of motion. The other man had some property, of which 
he was robbed by a party of thieves, who then tied his arms behind 
him in the same manner. Both these cases were benefited by medical 
treatment. 

Opium smoking. It was said, by one or two householders, that 
this was a very common practice among the respectable people, who 
usually lived in Tinghae, even affecting one third, some said one 
half, of these persons. But few of them, however, presented them- 
selves at the hospital, desiring medicine to cure them of the habit. 
Occasionally, persons were seen in private houses using the opium 
pipe, but no considerable data were afforded, whereby to judge re- 
garding this subject. 

Elephantiasis prevails to a great extent throughout the island, and 
many cases were seen in which fearful ravages had been committed 
by this disease. It presented itself much more frequently in Chusan 
than it does at Canton, but from what cause is not apparent. Some 
of the incipient cases were slightly benefited by frequent purgatives, 
repeated bathing of the limbs with warm water, followed by the use 
of stimulating liniments. But the period during which the cases 
were attended to was not sufficient to show whether the benefit 
would be permanent or not. 

Psora and other cutaneous diseases, exist among the people in 
much the same degree as in other parts of China. 

In the case of opening into the trachea, the disease commenced 
nine years ago, when a small abscess appeared in front of the trachea : 
this increased in size and probably a large slough came away, and 
ulceration went.on till in course of a short lime, an opening was 
made into the trachea just below the cricoid cartilage, which en- 
larged until it attained its present size — three quarters of an inch in 
diameter, and comprising the whole breadth of the trachea, and is 
now stationary ; the edges have not cicatrized, but secrete a small 
quantity of pus. While the wound is open, the man cannot of course 
speak at all, and breathing is painful to him, as the instant admission 
of cold air into the lungs produces a severe cough ; but to obviate this 
inconvenience, he uses a solid flat plug of paper of proper size, and 
by carefully adjusting it to the opening, he is able to breathe freely 
through the mouth, and to speak distinctly though with a rough and 
hoarse voice. The man had no pain, and enjoyed tolerable health, 
though he had an emaciated appearance, and was subject to cough, 
and occasionally to asthmatic attacks 

I 



The cnse of mortification of both feet occurred in a beggar, who 
was found lying on some straw in one of the Chinese public offices. 
He had been much exposed to the severe cold, while poorly clad, and 
not having had sufficient food, numbness came on in both feet. When 
he was first seen they were both cold and black ; there was also a 
black gangrenous spot on the tip of the nose. The use of wine and 
of nourishing diet was of much service at first ; a line of separation 
formed, the man began to rally and was stronger; but suddenly a 
change took place, great prostration came on, inability to open the 
jaws supervened, and he shortly died. 

The man having disease of the os calcis came from Lowang; large 
abscesses had formed round the heel for some months, and when he 
came to the hospital, the posterior half of the os calcis was found to 
be black and loose, and was easily removed. Considerable hemor- 
rhage took place on the removal of the bone, but soon ceased ; heal- 
thy granulations sprung up from the surface of the sound bone, and 
the wound gradually contracted and closed, and shortly afterwards 
the man was able to walk about with ease. 

The compound fracture of the humerus was in a boy 14 years old, 
and resulted from a gunshot wound received during an affray be- 
tween a foraging party and some villagers in the valley of Chaeho. A 
party of sipahis, accompanied by one of their own officers, were 
Inlying provisions for the regiment, and had purchased a quantity of 
fowls and vegetables, when some of the Chinese knocked the money 
out of the officer's hand, while others ran off with a musket belong- 
ing to one of the men ; the rest of the party fired at the thieves, and 
this little boy, who was standing by, received a wound. The ball 
passed through the left arm a little above the elbow ; great hemor- 
rhage had followed, as was evident from the boy's clothes having 
been saturated with blood ; to stop this a small cord had been tightly 
bound round the arm. When he was brought to the hospital, some 
davs after the accident, the cord was almost buried in the flesh, and 
the limb was much swollen ; at first, it was thought that the ball had 
traversed the elbow-joint, but this was found not to be the case, and 
that the humerus only had been fractured. He remained two months 
in the hospital, during which time the wound on the inner side heal- 
ed, and on the outer side 2 or 3 sinuses only remained, at the bottom 
of which were felt some small portions of loose bone. The fractured 
bone became consolidated, and the elbow could be moved without 
pain ; and the case promised to terminate favorably in every respect 
when it was last seen. 



23 

The case of compound fracture of the os frontis was in a boy of 
16 years, and occurred in a quarrel which took place between some 
foreign sailors and villagers regarding the sale of a bullock, for which 
the price had been paid : but a misunderstanding arose, and the 
owners, wishing to get back the bullock, attacked the sailors, who, 
in self-defense, drew their cutlases on their opponents, and this buy 
received a wound in the head. Much blood flowed from one of the 
large branches of the temporal artery, which was wounded. The 
external wound was three inches long, the os frontis was cut through 
about one inch, and a portion of loose bone lay at the bottom of 
the wound, which being removed, left the dura mater exposed for the 
space of a circle half an inch in diameter. The bleeding gradually 
ceased, the wound was dressed with simple ointment and wet lint, 
and a bandage rolled tightly round the head. No symptoms of dis- 
turbance of the functions of the brain took place, but profuse sup- 
puration of the whole surface of the wound ensued ; this, however, 
gradually diminished, and the wound closed completely, and the boy 
left the hospital, having merely a slight pain in the region of the 
wound, with occasional feelings of uneasiness over the scalp. This 
case, as well as the former, required watching at the time the island 
was evacuated, and the hospital necessarily closed ; however, it is to 
be hoped that they will both do well. 

It is an interesting subject of inquiry as to what may be the pro- 
bable cause of the large amount of disease of the eye, which exists 
among the people of this country. From the delicacy of the organ, 
and its exposure to irritating agents of various kinds, it is in all coun- 
tries subject to many diseases, to which this people are liable in com- 
mon with others ; but as will be seen from the subjoined list of cases, 
trichiasis, entropion], granular lids, catarrhal ophth'almia, pterygium, 
contraction of the tarsi, and opacity of the cornea, prevail to a very 
great extent, much greater than is the usual proportion in other parts 
of the world. It is evident that this cannot arise from the formation 
of the eye itself, for though the eyes of the Chinese are small, and 
the eyelids drawn inwards and downwards, in many cases, so as to 
make a distinct fold at the inner angle, as is especially seen in many 
of the females, still this is the natural condition of the eye throughout 
the whole nation, and it is difficult to understand how the natural 
state of any organ can make it liable to disease. It is true that some 
individuals are born with such a conformation of body, that they are 
more prone than others to disease, but this is altogelher an abnormal 
condition : whereas the form of the eye in this people is, as before 



mentioned, perfectly naturai. And how can it be supposed that al- 
most one third of the human race should be thus predisposed to a 
diseased condition of so important an organ ! It would appear, as 
the result of observation, that the more frequent occurrence of the 
above named diseases arises in a great measure from two causes. 

1st. The severe inflammation of the organ, which comes on at the 
commencement of the northerly and northeasterly winds in October, 
November, and December : this being permitted to run its course 
without relief being obtained, leaves as its consequences, various 
changes in the tissues, of a more or less injurious nature according to 
the intensity of the primary inflammation of the eye and its append- 
ages, and the healthy or unhealthy condition of the sufferer. 

2d. The injurious effects of a practice which is commonly followed 
by the Chinese barbers of everting the lower lid, and rubbing its in- 
ner surface gently with an ivory or bamboo instrument, shaped like a 
small scoop, which they also pass under the lid and deep into the inner 
and outer canthi ; this they call ' washing the eye,' and the declared 
intention is the removal of any portion of mucus that may be lodging 
on its surface. It is a very common habit and performed daily in 
the barber's shops, where, after the head has been shaved, the man 
sits composedly as if enjoying exquisite delight, while the barber la 
thus operating on his eyes. If the person's eyes be examined after 
this process, they will be found to be very red and in a state of consi- 
derable irritation, and in piocess of time chronic conjunctivitis 
supervenes, and this being considered as the result of the eye not 
being sufficiently cleansed, the practice is persisted in, and the con- 
junctiva of the lid becomes covered with granulations. In other 
cases, the conjunctiva becomes indurated like thin parchment, the 
tarsal cartilages contract and induce entropium. Other diseases also 
result in process of time, variously modified according to circum- 
stances ; as for instance, exposure to the cold wind inducing an attack 
of acute inflammation of the organ. 

The cases of entropium were operated upon in the usual mode of 
removing a fold of skin from the upper lid and dividing the tarsal 
cartilage. This was, generally speaking, completely successful, and 
the state of the eye much improved in most of the cases ; in others 
the cornea had become so opaque from the long continuance of the 
disease that, although the constant pain and irritation caused by the 
inverted lids were removed, the power of vision was little increased. 

The Chinese surgeons adopt a plan of operating for this disease, 
which is common in Canton as well as in Chusan. The object is to 



39 

inclose a fold of the upper lid, between two narrow strips of bamboo, 
which are then bound tightly together at their ends by thread ; the 
fold of skill sloughs and falls off, and the contraction that occurs dur- 
ing the healing of the wound everts the edge of lid. But this is 
objectionable; in the first place, On account of the pain caused during 
the separation of the slough, and still more so, from the circumstance 
that when the disease is thus treated, considerable transverse con- 
traction of the lids takes place, which induces a shortening of the 
tarsal cartilage, and if this condition of the lid exists to any extent, it 
is almost as prejudicial to the eye as the original disease, and if it 
have continued for a length of time, is not remediable by a surgical 
operation. 

During the northerly monsoon, and especially at its commence- 
ment, several cases of severe catarrhal ophthalmia presented them- 
selves ; in some of these the disease had existed for several days, 
extensive destruction of the cornea had taken place, and in a few 
cases, one or both eyes were lost ; but when the disease was recent, al- 
though very severe, it was in most cases speedily relieved. The plan 
of treatment adopted was that which is now generally followed ; 
namely, using the strong solution of nitrate of silver (10 grains to an 
ounce of water). This was dropped into the eye, blisters were ap- 
plied to the temples, and active purgatives administered. The strong 
solution was applied daily for three or four days, and then changed 
for one of 5 grains, and occasionally fresh blisters were applied after 
the first had healed. The success of this practice was on the whole 
very gratifying ; and in no case that can be remembered, did loss of 
the eye, or deep ulceration of the cornea ensue, when the case had 
come early under treatment. And it would appear, as the result of the 
cases met with at Chusan, that the use of the nitrate of silver was 
much more beneficial in removing the disease, than depletion would 
have been under the same circumstances. Granular lids prevail to a 
great extent, and are the result of long continued irritation of the 
conjunctiva as above mentioned. This state of granulation of the 
palpebral conjunctiva induces in course of time entropium, which 
has already been spoken of: but still more frequently, more or less 
dense opacity of the cornea itself comes on. It does not appear that 
persons afflicted with granular lids often become completely blind, but 
constant pain and lachryination are produced, and the sight mate- 
rially injured by the degree of opacity of the cornea which almost 
constantly accompanies this affection. The application of sulphate 
of copper, solution of nitrate of silver, anil other remedies, were 



M 

Useful in relieving the irritation of the organ, and removing more or 
less of the opacity of the cornea. 

It may not he out of place to mention here, that of all the females 
who came to the hospital (and they were not few), and of others seen 
in various parts of the island, not one among them had feet of the 
natural size. Some Were not so much compressed as others, but the 
practice of confining the feet, during its growth, is universal at Chusan, 
while at Canton and Macao many women have their feet completely 
free, and of natural size. Though several females came to the hos- 
pital affected with various diseases, and with ulcers of the leg, only 
in one or two instances was there seen any ulcer or other disease 
apparently caused by the compression of the foot, and the forced dis- 
tortion of its bones. It cannot be said with any degree of certainty 
how far this practice is injurious to health; but it would appear, from 
the observation of numerous instances, among different classes of 
society, both in children and adults, that it does not cause so much 
misery as might be expected from the severe treatment to which the 
feet are subjected in infancy. Very frequently when walking in the 
open couiTciiL, strong healthy women, though having their feet very 
much compressed, were seen walking about with readiness, and not 
apparently suffering from any pain in the feet whatever: others also 
have walked several miles to the hospital, and have had to return 
home the same day, so that locomotion is by no means prevented. 

It is ever interesting to observe the eflects on health, which are 
caused by the habits and customs of a people, and this is one not 
undeserving of some attention as more intimate acquaintance with the 
Chinese is obtained. And torturing as this treatment of the feet would 
appear to he, and unsightly to us as are its consequences, it is perhaps 
on the whole normore injurious to health and comfort, than are the 
practices inflicted by fashion on the female sex in western nations. 

The accompanying list of diseases is not entirely without interest 
in its relation to vital statistics. It shows that intermittent fever 
prevails to a cousiderable extent among the natives of Chusan and 
the neighboring districts, also that some of the diseases of the eye 
are very frequently met with; but it is at the same time evident, that 
the hospital was not open to the admission of patients for a sufficient 
length of time, to afford any certain data, on which fully to rely; 
neither is the amount of the population in those districts, so accurately 
ascertained, as to show the relative amount in that and other localities 
in China. However, as other openings occur, and fresh stations of 
the Society arc established, some interesting facts regarding the exact 



:?l 



state of health among this people may perhaps he obtained, if 
longer residence at any place be afforded than was the case at 
Tinghae. And, though the trial of the Society's operations at Chnsan 
was short i and imperfect, there can be little doubt that the step 
which was taken, in sending one of its agents there, was well advised, 
and shows the advantage of at once occupying every new station that 
may be practicable; since by endeavoring to administer to their relief, 
and to remove the diseases to which they are exposed, much can be 
done among the people for their individual benefit, a better insight 
obtained into their manners and customs, and a beneficial influence 
obtained over their minds. 

Register of cases from September 2JW, 1840, to February 20th, 
1841. 



General and constitutional 
diseases. ' 
Intermittent fever . 
Anasarca after fever 
Ascites 

Enlargement of spleen 
Dysentery 
Icterus . 

Dyspepsia 
Gastrodysia . 
Constipation 
Haematemesis 
Chronic hepatitis . 
Haemoptysis 

Tussis .... 
Asthma 
Bronchitis 
Chronic laryngitis . 
Cynanche tonsillaris 
Headache 

Toothache . . . 
Disordered bowels in children 
Rheumatism 
Nodosity of joints . 
Partial paralysis of arms . 
„ „ of face . 

Paralysis of arms caused by tor 

ture inflicted by Chinese 

officers 
Prostration from starvation ; (1 

died, 1 recovered) 
Erysipelas of face and limhs 
Saiacia 



Opium smoking . . 5 
Cutaneous diseases. 

423 Elephantiasis of one leg . 27 

25 Elephantiasis of both legs 16 
3 Elephantiasis of both legs, with 

6 deep sloughs upon leg . 1 

7 Elephantiasis of both legs, loss 
10 of toes, protrusion of ineta- 
62 tarsal bones . . 1 

5 Elephantiasis of both legs, with 

3 deep ulcers . . 3 
2 Psoriasis inveterata of whole 
2 body ... 8 
2 Psoriasis of leg . . 16 

6 1 Psoriasis of nates . . 4 

2 Psoriasis of ham . . 2 

4 Psoriasis of face . . 1 

1 Psora .... 140 

6 Psora inveterata . . 43 
1 3 Lepra of body and limbs 12 

3 Tinea capitis . . 6 

7 I Tinea scutulata . . 2 
Ecthyma ... 2 
Purpura hcemorrhagica . 1 

. General surgical affections. 
Abscesses of various parts 115 

Thecal abscess of fingers 5 

Sinus of thigh . . 1 

Inflammation of knee joint 1 
Sloughing of tendon of index 

2 finger ... 1 

4 Accidental amputation of 
1 I finger ... 1 



:\-> 



Inflammation of submaxillary 

glands ... 1 

Inflamed mamma . . 3 
Irritable ulceration round the 

nipple ... 4 

Carbuncle ... 1 

Tumor of" neck . . 1 

Large tumor of face . 1 

„ „ on back of neck 1 

Indurated swelling of leg 1 

Enlarged glands of neck 2 

Polypus nasi (both removed) 2 
Ulcers of various parts . 679 
Large opening into trachea 

below the cricoid cartilage 1 

Paraphymosis . . 1 

Varicose veins of leg . 6 

Excrescences round the anus 4 

Fistula in ano . . 4 
Fistula in ano, very extensive, 

traversing the whole of the 

nates ... 1 

Large bleeding haemorrhoids 1 

Severe bite on the leg by a pig 1 

Severe burns on leg . 2 

Lupus of nose and face . 4 
Wounds of head and limbs 10 
Contusion on thorax . 10 
Contusion of various joints 16 

Syphilis, chancres . . 2 

Gonorrhasa and bubo . 2 

Stricture of urethra . 1 
Mortification of both feet, and 

sloughing of part of the nose 

from cold ... 1 

Sloughs on both feet . 1 

Large slough on the larynx 1 
Large slough on nates with 

great induration of cellular 

tissue ... 1 
Large slough on face in children 2 
Anchylosis of wrist with carious 

bone ... 2 

Caries of tibia . . 1 

Necrosis of tibia . . 1 
Removal of half of the os calcis 

by exfoliation . . 1 
Caries of ulna, great bony depo. 

sition from periostitis . 1 



Necrosis of humerus . 1 

Caries of alveoli of supra-max- 
illary bone . . 3 
Caries of ilium . . 1 
Caries of one of the phalanges 

of the middle finger . ] 

(Janes of glenoid cavity of the 

scapula ... 1 

Perforation of bony palate, 

secondary syphilis . 1 

Compound fracture of humerus, 

a gun-shot wound . 1 

Compound fracture of os frontis, 

from blow of a cutlas . 1 

Old dislocation of the head of 

the radius ... 1 

Contraction of elbow . 1 

Dorsum of hand thrown back 

on forearm, from burn 1 

Distortion of foot, sole looking 
upwards and backwards, so 
that the man walked on his 
instep ... 1 

Contraction of supinator radii 
longus, with inability to 
move the wrist joint . 1 

Dislocation of lower jaw both 

sides ... 1 

Retraction of foot inwards 1 

Scrotal hernia - l 

Inguinal hernia - 1 

Umbilical hernia - - l 

Diseases of the ear. 
Surditas from excess of cerumen 6 
Surditas from caries of tem- 
poral bone ... l 
Surditas from disease of mastoid 
cells, large external opening 
behind the ear . . i 
Diseases of the eye and 
its appendages. 
Abscess on eyelid - 3 
Hordeolum . 3 
Small tumor of lid - 1 
Ulcer of lids - 1 
Inflammation of Meibonian 

glands ... 1 

Trichiasis . . . 144 

Entropium (operated on 22) 70 



33 



Ectropium ... 35 

Contraction of tarsi . 40 

Contraction of tarsi (after na- 
tive operation for entropium) 24 
Lippitudo ... 95 

Conjunctivitis . . 20 

Catarrhal ophthalmia, severe 134 
Chronic ophthalmia . 8 

Granular lids slight opacity 220 
Granular lids with much opa- 
city .... 30 
Pterygium (operated on 6) 146 
Contraction of puncto lacry- 

malia ... 1 

Ulceration of cornea, slight 80 
Ulceration of cornea, severe 51 
Opacity of cornea . . 311 
Opacity of cornea, very dense 8 
Staphyloma ... 12 

Abscesses of eyelids and scalp, 
causing great contraction of 
eyelids, and loss of vision 1 

Loss of vision in both eyes from 
dense vascular opacity of 
cornea ... 2 



Loss of vision in one eye from 

entropium . . 16 

Loss of vision in both eyes from 

entropium . . 8 

Loss of vision in oneeye from 

opacity of cornea . 18 

Loss of vision in both eyes from 

opacity of cornea . 10 

Loss of vision in one eye, slough- 
ing cornea from catarrhal 
ophthalmia . . 16 

Loss of vision in both eyes, 
sloughing cornea from ca- 
tarrhal ophthalmia . 8 
Hernia tridis of one eye . 6 
Hernia tridis of both eyes 2 
Closure of pupil by lymph 1 
Contraction of both pupils to 

a point ... 1 

Synechia anterior - 4 

Synechia posterior . 8 

Cataract lenticular - 6' 

Cataract capsular 5 

Amaurosis . - 4 



Total 3502 



It *! I' O It T 



Of the Medical Missionary Society's operations 



(it Murau in 1810-41. 



By Benjamin Hobson 



In July, 1838, ihe Society's hospital in Macao, as mentioned in a 
former report, was first opened for the reception of patients. It was 
closed on the 5th of Oct. following, in consequence of the absence 
of any other medical officer to take charge of the establishment. 

On the first of July, 1839, it was reopened; but owing to the ex- 
traordinary events of that year, it was found necessary to suspend its 
operations on the 15th of the subsequent month. During that short 
space, 107 persons applied for medical relief. Although medicines 
were administered for some months afterwards to occasional appli- 
cants, the doors of the hospital were not again thrown open to receive 
either in or out-patients until August, 1840. 

From that time up to the present (June 39th, 1841), with the ex- 
ception of occasional interruptions from the unsettled state of affairs, 
there has been a portion of each day devoted to this department of the 
Society's operations. 

The capabilities of this institution have not as yet been fully test- 
ed, both from its recent origin, and the fear and disquietude which per- 
vaded the native community a few months since, as well as from a 
reluctance to allow its medical duties to encroach upon the time that 
was necessary to devote for acquiring some attainments in the lan- 
guage : all of which have induced a less extensive opening of the 
hospital than otherwise would have been desirable. But now, judg- 
ing from the increase of attendance lor the last few months, from this 



:t.-, 

city, and the numerous and populous towns and hamlets in this vici- 
nity, it is reasonably anticipated that its influence and usefulness 
will rapidly advance. 

The cases that have come under treatment have been varied, hut 
as will be seen from the subjoined list are chiefly surgical. A few 
of the more important ones were admitted into the house, and if 
their circumstances required it, a small allowance of money was grant- 
ed to buy rice and fuel. Many more would have gladly availed them- 
selves of the convenience which the wards afforded, had it been con- 
sidered expedient at the time to receive them- While speaking upon 
this subject it may not be out of place to observe, that when the 
hospitals are not under the surveillance or jurisdiction of Chinese 
officers, as they have been at Chusan and Macao, there are most 
pleasing facilities afforded for distributing religious books, and hold- 
ing free intercourse with the people. 

If we may judge from the experience of the past, both here and at 
Chusan, there appears no want of readiness on the part of the natives 
to acknowledge the superiority of foreign medical skill, nor any indis- 
position to avail themselves of the gratuitous aid proffoied to them. 
But until full confidence is experienced, there is a strong and natu- 
ral aversion to submit to operations, or patience sufficiently great to 
continue for any length of time, the use of the remedies prescribed. 
The treatment of chronic diseases is as usual less satisfactory than 
the acute, as the patient not being wholly disabled by the former is 
less anxious about recovery, and more unwilling to persevere in the 
mode of treatment recommended. But although there is often im- 
patience manifested in not receiving immediate cure, and great 
dread of enduring pain, yet when the patient has decided to submit to 
the operation proposed he generally bears it with fortitude, lit minor 
operations, it is found better at once to perform them without con- 
sulting the patient, as they are completed before there is time for the 
fears to be excited. A few general remarks upon the tabular list of 
cases will close the present report. 

Of the diseases of the eye which form such an essential and im- 
portant class of the maladies of this people, catarrhal and chronic 
ophthalmia, acute conjunctivitis, granular lids, entropium, pterygium, 
and trichiasis, seem to be the most general. These ophthalmia, which 
the native physicians appear never to attempt to remedy, from neglect 
or irritation, usually excite a varicose state of the vessels of the con- 
junctiva, and a thickened vascular condition of the cornea and tarsi, 
terminating in opacity, leucoma, and final loss of vision. In the ca- 



:5<i 

tarrhal and acute ophthalmia, although the practice of employing local 
stimulants is not recommended by some high authorities in ophthal- 
mic surgery, yet the use of nitrate of silver from 5 to 10 grains to 
an ounce of distilled water, has been found very successful, con- 
joined with aperients in their treatment. Strong solutions also of 
sub-acetate of lead, and sulphates of copper and zinc, have proved of 
the greatest service in the chronic ophthalmia with granulations and 
opacity. 

The natives of this province, especially aged persons, appear very 
liable to cataract, and it is hoped that the next report will contain 
data of some value, regarding their general character and treatment. 

Cutaneous diseases also form a principal part of the diseases of 
the Chinese. Pustular scabies affects the lower orders to a great 
extent, and although often formidable in its appearance, is rapidly 
cured by the union of sulphur with some oxide of mercury. A 
similar kind of tieatment has been very successful in curing psori- 
asis annulata. 

The ulcers enumerated include ulcerations succeeding wounds, 
injuries, and other causes, affecting different parts of the body, but 
chiefly the lower extremities. They are very numerous among the 
working classes, arising probably from the heavy weights borne, a 
poor vegetable diet, or want of cleanliness. From neglect and in- 
appropriate applications they often become large and indolent, but 
by means of ablution and dressings of warm water, escharotic solu- 
tions, or stimulating ointments, they speedily assume a healthy ap- 
pearance. As linen is difficult to obtain, and oiled silk expensive, a 
kind of paper manufactured by the Chinese, which is soft, flexible, 
not easily rent, and peculiarly "well adapted to spread ointments 
upon, has been in a great measure substituted for the former; and 
for the latter, oiled paper of a superior quality, also prepared by 
the natives; the same brushed over with a thin coating of gum ara- 
ble forms an efficient sticking plaster for small wounds. 

In September, a boy aged 16, from the country, was admitted as 
a patient with three large sloughing ulcers of the leg. His health 
was impaired, and his pulse quick and feeble ; some medicines were 
administered, and the ulcers at first poulticed, and afterwards 
dressed with solutions of nitrate of silver, sulphate of copper, and 
the" ordinary stimulating ointments, — but no benefit followed their 
use ; on the contrary the ulcers assumed a phagedenic character, 
and attended with irritative fever ; other remedies also eqinllv I'aiU 
eil in checking the progress of the ulceration Opium, dissolved in 



it- 
nitric acid slightly iliiuted, was now applied, which happily produc- 
ed an immediate change, the deep sloughs of muscle, nerves, and 
vessels were thrown off, and all the sores presented a healthy gra- 
nulating appearance. The warm water dressing, with the occasion- 
al use of sulphate of copper in solution, now speedily healed them. 

The abscesses usually met with are large and chronic. Those 
of the scalp are frequent. Carbuncles, which are so common in hot 
climates, often come under treatment. 

Acute rheumatism has not yet been observed, but on the contrary, 
chronic rheumatic pains of the joints and muscles are daily seen, 
arising probably from the usual causes of cold and damp in winter. 

Wounds and contusions have been numerous, some have been severe 
from attacks by pirates. The chief character has been lacerated 
and superficial. A few have been punctured and gun-shot wounds. 

In April, a patient aged 24, was admitted with a gun-shot wound of 
the leg ; he stated that he received the shot from a Portuguese sol- 
dier, who suspected him unjustly to be a thief; it was followed by 
considerable hemorrhage and pain. A native friend, seeing the ball 
near the outlet of the wound, forthwith by a gash cut it out. About 
two days afterwards he came to the hospital. The ball had catered 
posteriorly by the side of the tendo achilles, two inches above the 
inferior extremity of the fibula, leaving a round ragged wound; and 
comminuting that bone, remained flattened and uneven at the sur- 
face of the wound in front. The incision which had been made to 
extract it was three inches in length, parallel and close to the anterior 
tibial artery. Several loose portions of bone were removed, warm 
water dressing applied, the leg rolled, and its position fixed. 

The wound quickly granulated rtlid healed, with the exception of 
a sinus anteriorly, which was kept open by portions of loo~e hone still 
felt deeply in the wound. These gradually becoming more superfi- 
cial, were taken onl with lillle injury to the soft parts; in a month 
the patient was dismissed, the leg being straight and strong. 

In September, a man aged 40, from the island of Ilonam near Can- 
ton, entered the hospital suffering excruriaiiug pain from retention of 
urine. On examining the patient, it was discovered that he was fre- 
quently subject to these seizures, but they were of short duration 
compared with the present, which was three days. The bladder was 
readily recognized, distended with fluid rising up to the umbilicus, 
the pulse quick, and countenance anxious. The urine was imme- 
diately drawn off by a silver catheter: it was dark, of strong am- 
niloniaca odor, and exceeded two quirts. The- nest day it was 



" lira » 

again necessary to renew the operation, and for many days after- 
wards, changing the size. The prostate was five times its natural 
size, and the urine deposited large quantities of thick white sedi- 
ment, which on examination was found to be chiefly the magnesio- 
phosphates. Active purging, with the daily use of the catheter, in 
three weeks restored him to his usual health; he returned subsequent- 
ly to offer thanks, and had continued well. As future attacks might 
reasonably be expected, a silver catheter was made for him at his 
own expense, which he learned how to use. Other cases of reten- 
tion from stricture, or enlarged prostate, have been similarly treated, 
with the warmest thanks for the relief imparted. 

Two cases of dislocation, one of the humerus into the axilla, and 
the other of the first phalanx of the thumb upon the anterior surface 
of the metacarpal bone may just be noticed. Both had been dislocated 
for more than six weeks when they applied for admission. The first 
was occasioned by a fall from the mast to the deck of a ship, and 
the other from a blow. In the one case, extensive and counler-exteiiT 
tion was steadily maintained for two hours and a half, by means of 
ropes and pullies; and the other for a considerable length of time 
and repeatedly, by a small cord fixed with a clove hitch; but neither 
fo them could be reduced, although the system was nauseated by 
tartarized antimony. Farther efforts could not be employed. 

A few interesting cases of thickening and deposition of serum in 
the cellular tissue of the leg, greatly distorting its size and shape, 
have been treated successfully, with stimulating liniments, equal and 
continued pressure by rollers, and saline aperients. But as soon as 
the pressure is removed, and the patient begins to walk, the disease 
has a tendency to return, and the integuments thicken, and become 
hard, as in elephantiasis. 

Some cases of enlarged spleen have come under observation, but 
too few at present to remark upon. 

From the many opportunities that have presented, in examining 
the effects of opium-smoking upon the Chinese, some allusion to it 
may be expected. It is the unbiassed conviction of the writer from 
the cases observed, that its habitual use is injurious to the health and 
happiness of those addicted to the practice. Its baneful influence is 
insidious but certain ; and its moderate indulgence, if means permit, 
lays the foundation for its continued and increasing use. 

The three cases of poisoning mentioned in the list, were produced 
by swallowing a large dose of the extract of opium, under the influ- 
ence of excited feeliiigs; two were dead before remedies could be 



.{'.I 



employed, the other, i young female, recovered, having vomited the 
opium before it could be absorbed into the system. — Farther remarks 
upon the nature and character of the diseases of this and the neigh- 
boring provinces, will be reserved for a future report, when more am- 
ple opportunity has been afforded, to form an important and more ex- 
tended analysis of them. 

Register of diseases attended to in M. M. S. Hospital at Macao, 
from August 1840, to July 1841. 



Diseases of the eye 
.Catarrhal ophthalmia 
Chronic ophthalmia 
Conjunctivitis acute and 
Cataract 
Entropium 
Ectropium 
Granular lids 
Opacity of cornea . 
Ulcers of cornea ., 
Staphyloma . 
Pterygium 
Leucoma 
Trichiasis 
Amaurosis 
Epiphora 
Hypopium 
Glaucoma 
Iritis 

Nyctalopia 
Synechia posterior 
Closure of pupil 
Loss of vision 
Diseased eyelids 
Conical cornea 
Ptosis . 

Tumor of upper lid 
Enlarged carnicula 
Abscesses of lachryma 

Diseases of the sk 
Scabies 
Psosiaris 
Lepra . 
Impetigo 
Porrigo 
Herpes 
Lichen 
Ecthyma 
Strophulus 



sac 
in. 



Bull* . 
35 Iethyosis 
21 j Erysipelas 



as 

22 

16 

4 

43 

35 

8 

5 

28 

10 

15 

12 

6 

3 

1 

6 

4 

1 

2 

11 

11 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

97 
47 
7 
9 
9 
7 
9 
4 
1 



1 
1 
1 

2 
17 

8 

33 

2 

1 

30 
4 

16 
5 
4 
1 
1 
7 
5 
2 



Diseases of the chest. 
Acute bronchitis . 
Chronic bronchitis 
Haemoptysis . 
Catarrh 
Asthma 
Chronic laryngitis . 

Diseases of the abdomen. 
Dyspepsia 

Ascites .... 
Diarrhsea 
Enlarged spleen 
Inguinal hernia 
Inguinal hernia congenital 
Umbilical hernia congenital 
Haemorrhoids 
Constipation 
Gastrodynia . 

Diseases of the urinary organs 
Retention of urine from enlarged 

prostrate or stricture . 10 

Hydrocele ... 8 

Diseased testi . . 5 

Phymosis (congenital) . 2 

Ulcers of prepuce and glans 

penis 
Bubo .... 
Dysuria 
Gonorrhoea . 

Diseases of the uterine system. 
Amenorrhoea . . 'A 

Suppressio mensis - . 2 

Prolapsus uteri . . 1 

Inflammation of pudenda 4 

General diseases. 
Ulcers - - 220 



10 



Ujscesses . • To 

Carbuncles . 19 

Rheumatism - 96 

Lumbago ... 6 
Intermittent and continued 

fever . . . 13 

Onychia - . 14 

Whitloe ... 7 

Inflammation of joints 18 

Disease of hip joint 5 

Dislocations 4 

Fractures . 3 

Necrosis and caries 9 
Exfoliation of outer table of 

skull . . 1 

Exfoliation of the lower jaw 4 

Anasarca . . 17 

Cachexy . 9 
Thickening of cellular tissue 

of the leg - - - 11 

Diseased cervical glands 17 

Varicose veins - 11 

Enlarged thyroid gland - 6 



Inflammation of tcndo achilles 
Encysted tumors of face - 
Ganglia on tendons 
Poisoning by opium by taking 

a large dose of the extract 
Deformity of bones of foot from 

light and irregular bandaging 
Anomalous or unnecessary to 



name 


64 


Vaccinations not entered. 




GENERAL SUMMARY. 




Ophthalmic diseases 


342 


Cutaneous diseases 


191 


Pectoral diseases - 


63 


Abdominal diseases 


75 


Urinary diseases 


51 


Uterine diseases 


10 


Wounds 


41 


Contusions - 


35 


General and local diseases 


not 


classified - 


725 


Total 


1457 



itUIKF ABSTRACT 



OF ALL THE SUCCESSIVE REPORTS OF THE 



Medical Missionary Society. 



from 1835 to 1840 



It being judged desirable by the committee of the Medical Mis- 
sionary Society, to give a short account of the operations of the So- 
ciety in the hospitals at Canton and Macao, from the time of their 
establishment, the following statement is made. 

Encouraged by the successful trials made by Pearson, Colledge, 
and others, and by the success of a dispensary at Singapore for the 
benefit of the Chinese, Dr. Parker rented a house in Fungtae hong, 
at Canton, and immediately opened it as an ophthalmic hospital, 
Nov. 4th, 1835. The accomodations of the hospital were found to 
be commodious, and by adopting a few and simple regulations the 
work of the hospital was readily accomplished. During the first 
quarter, from Nov. 4th, 1835 to Feb. 4th, 1836, nine hundred and 
twenty-five patients were entered on the register. 

First Report. In illustration of the eagerness with which pa- 
tients resorted to the hospital for relief, and the confidence they 
reposed in the physician, Dr. Parker remarks : 

" When it wae the practice to admit patients daily, I observed 
some of them with lanterns, with which they left their homes at two 
or three o'clock in the morning, in order that they might be there in 
season ; when the days of admission were limited, they sometimes 
came the previous evening, and remained all night, that they might 
secure a ticket in the morning. There have been applicants from 
other parts of the province as well as from this vicinity Numbers 
<i 



42 

from other provinces, from Nanking and Peking, who were resident 
in Canton, have called. Several tea merchants from the north, or 
their friends, have been treated. Persons from the offices of both the 
Kwangchow foo and the hoppo, have been among my patients. 
When obliged to close the doors against new admissions, persons 
from a distance would avail themselves of the influence of some fo- 
reign gentleman, or hong merchant, to intercede for them. No op- 
position has been excited, but on the contrary I have been often 
assured that the hospital was known and approved by the officers of 
government. With but rare exceptions, unqualified confidence has 
been manifested by the patients. A woman of Mohammedan faith, 
sixty -five years of age, who had cataract of both eyes, when I ex- 
pressed a doubt whether she could bear to have the knife put into her 
eye, replied, ' if you like, you may take them both out and put them 
in again.' " 

Among the cases which presented themselves this quarter, one or 
two may be referred to. One was a case in which there were no ex- 
ternal ears; a perforation was made in the situation of the meatus 
exteruus by several applications of caustic potass, and ultimately the 
power of hearing was obtained. Several cases of cataract were ope- 
rated upon successfully by couching. A large sarcomatous tumor, 
pendant from the right temple of a little girl, was successfully remov- 
ed, and the child soon recovered. 

Second Report. The second report of the hospital, from Feb. 
4th to May 4th, 1836, gives 358 ^s the number of the patients at 
tended to. " Had the object been to swell the catalogue of patients 
received, and were the strength of an individual sufficient for the 
task, the aggregate might have been thousands. The difficulty has 
been in avoiding applications, rather than in obtaining patients." Iu 
this, as well as in the former term, several cases of cataract were ope- 
rated on, and sight restored ; and several cases of sarcomatous, en- 
cysted, and other tumors, were operated on, and the deformity remov- 
ed. One case of injury was peculiarly interesting. It occurred in a 
woman, who fell from a ladder, a distance of twelve feet, upon a 
piece of bamboo, one inch in diameter and three feet high. It en- 
tered deep in the centre of the right armpit, came out above the 
shoulder, beneath the clavicle which it fractured, reentered the side 
of the neck, and passed apparently through the pharynx and esopha- 
gus, rent the soft palate through its whole extent, and was arrested 
only by the base of the cranium. Eighteen hours after the accident 
when first seen, there was considerable fever, and local inflammation ■ 



48 

fluids taken into the mouth came out at the side of the neck, and the 
air also passed through the wound during respiration. Poultices and 
simple dressings were applied to the wounds, and antiphlogistic treat- 
ment adopted, and by perseverance in this plan, the patient gradually 
recovered. As the result of the period now spoken of, Dr. Parker 
finishes his report with the following observations: 

"In this hasty report it is impossible to convey to the mind of a 
stranger an adequate idea of the interesting scenes of the past three 
months. To do this he need imagine an assembly averaging from 
seventy-five to a hundred of the unfortunate in every rank. He need 
see the man or child lately groping in darkness now rejoicing to be- 
hold the light ; here the fond mother, her countenance overcast with 
gloom at the apprehension that a darling child must soon die, pre- 
sently wanting terms to express her joy as she sees that child prat- 
tling around her, insensible to the danger from which it lias been res- 
cued ; and again he should witness the gratitude of those whose pro- 
tracted afflictions they had supposed would terminate only with lifo i 
in a few days restored to health ; and as he beholds considerable 
numbers who never again can see the light, think of a still larger 
company, who but for the timely relief afforded would have become 
alike unfortunate." 

Third Rbport. The third report states, that the hospital was 
closed for repairs from May 4th to June 8th, and during the remain- 
ing two months to August, 390 patients were entered on the register. 
During the term "a large number of applicants have been sent away 
as incurable, without being enrolled. All classes have eagerly applied 
for aid, and the same gratitude and confidence have been exhibited 
as heretofore." The cases attended and the operations performed 
were much of the same kind as formerly reported. The report con- 
cludes with a translation of an ode, written by an official gentleman, 
who having been operated on successfully for cararact, returns thanks 
in verse to his physician. The ode may be seen in the 5th vol. of 
the Chinese Repository, and well deserves a perusal. 

Fourth Report. The fourth report to Nov. 4th, 1836; enume- 
rates 462 patients for the last three months, and 2152 for the twelve 
months, during which the hospital had been opened. 

" From the specific character of the institution, a great similari- 
ty of diseases and treatment necessarily follow; arid it is superfluous 
to repeat the same illustrations of both, as well as the gratitude of 
the patients; and though cases of equal interest with any of the pre- 
ceding terms have occurred in the last, they need not be narrated un- 
less they present some peculiarity 



u 

" It has been a desideratum, to be able, as is customary in similar 
circumstances, to give the statistics of cases, whether the patients have 
gone away unbenefited, or with palliation or entire cure of their mala- 
dies. The imperfect knowledge of each other's language, the diffi- 
culty of impressing the patients with the propriety of reporting the 
result of the treatment, and their neglect to comply with the request, 
or the inconvenience of doing it when they reside at a great distance 
preclude such statistics. This general statement, however, may be 
given, that whilst many diseases of long standing have been perma- 
nently cured, scarcely an instance is recollected in which a case that 
has presented in its acute stage has passed into a chronic. Seldom 
does a week pass in which some patients, who have received per- 
fect cures do not return to the hospital with the expressions of lively 
gratitude for the favors they have enjoyed. All classes have continu- 
ed to avail themselves of the benefit of the institution ; aud some 
cases subjoined show that there is no diminution of confidence on 
their part — cases in which they have submitted to operations after 
the fullest declaration that there was imminent risk, but that death 
was inevitable unless they accepted the possible relief." 

One of the most interesting cases reported is the following. Sarco- 
matous tumor. Leang Ashing, aged 27 ; had an enormous tumor on 
the face, -about 18£ inches in circumference. It had been growing 
for more than ten years; in consequence of the application of caute- 
ry, a loathsome ulcer had formed on the" apex. When the man first 
came to the hospital, he had little constitutional disturbance, but he 
returned home and did not present himself again for two months, 
when his former healthy appearance had just given place to the sal- 
low and cadaverous expression of one fast verging to the grave. Af- 
ter a short course of tonic remedies, the patient was apprized of his 
situation, the certainty of a speedy death if the tumor was left alone, 
the possible unfortunate termination if extirpated, and the encourag- 
ing prospect that he might live for years if he submitted to the opera- 
tion. He referred it to our discretion, and in conjunction with his bro- 
ther, gave a writing certifying that they requested the removal of the 
tumor, and if successful they should rejoice, but if otherwise no 
blame would be imputed to the operator. A few days afterwards, the 
tumor was removed, little hemorrhage took place, and in ten days the 
discharge of pus ceased, and the whole was healed. 

One case of fungoid disease of the humerus, producing a tumor of 
immense size, for the removal of which it was judged expedient 
to amputate the arm at the shoulder joint, was among the patients ; 



4."» 

the operation was readily submitted to, and the patient speedily re- 
covered, leaving a good and healthy slump. This is probably the 
first Chinese who has ever voluntarily submitted to theainputation of 
one of the larger limbs. 

" The number of Chinese including patients who have visited the 
hospital is probably not less than 6000 or 7000. They have Witnessed 
the operations, and have seen the treatment and its effects. They are 
from nearly all parts of the empire, they carry with them the intelli- 
gence of what they have seen and heard. Consequently from pro- 
vinces more remote, applications are made and new and various di- 
seases are presented, and the desirableness is daily increasing of not 
only continuing the institution commenced, but also of establishing 
other departments (than that of the eye), and of supplying them with 
men of requisite qualifications." 

Fifth Report. The fifth report gives 548 as the new patients 
during the three months, terminating February 4th, L837. During 
the term the cases attended to and operated on, were much of similar 
nature to those formerly reported. Dr. Parker remarks, " Though 
many of the diseases are similar to those already described, yet oc- 
curring in persons of different ranks in society, and from different, 
and more remote, parts of the empire, and exhibiting the increased 
influence of these efforts and the unabated confidence of the Chinese, 
they ought to be reported." 

Sarcomatous tumor. Lo Wanshun, aged 41. She has had a 
large tumor on the left side of the face for 20 years. As usual the 
traces of the cautery and escharotics were visible upon it, and the 
patient stated, that an incision had been made into it, the hemor- 
rhage from which was with difficulty stopped. Having attended to 
the general health, the tumor was removed. The wound healed im- 
mediately, and in ten days the dressings were wholly removed. The 
face had nearly its natural appearance. Grateful and happy, she 
returned to her husband and family. 

Congenital tumor. Wang Keking, nged 27. The son of a re- 
spectable tea broker. It was observed at birth that the nates of the 
right side were unusually large, but the child did not attract particular 
attention, till it was eight years old, when the preternatural enlarge- 
ment became conspicuous. The growth was at first gradual, but for 
the last four years its increase has been rapid, and it is now nearly 
one third the weight of the man. It is suspended apparently by fibrin- 
ous bands, from the dorsal part of the false ribs, the spinous pro- 
cesses of the ilium and the nates: its circumference covers about * 



46 

square foot. Tim tumor extends a little below tlie knees, and its 
weight is estimated at from 60 to 100 pounds; when the man sits 
down, it forms a circular cushion, which elevates him six inches or 
more from the chair. The tumor is free from pain and the man 
enjoys good health. The desirableness of removing the tumor is 
evident, but the patient has not decided to submit to an operation. 

In a subsequent teport it is mentioned that shortly after his calling 
at the hospital, he was seized with severe fever which terminated 
fatally in three days. 

A young lady from Nanking, Le Awoo, aged 19, eldest daughter 
of a silk merchant, had suffered from infancy from a disease of the 
left eye. At this time a white spot, with a fleshy excrescence, cover- 
ed the apex of the cornea, and the blood-vessels were enlarged and 
passed over the cornea. By repeated applications of lunar caustic, 
the fleshy excrescence was destroyed ; the blood vessels were divided 
at the union of the cornea and sclerotica. The general health was 
attended to, and after applying leeches to the temples, a blister was 
ordered. New granulations soon filled up the depression in the cor- 
nea made by the caustic. The blood vessels of the cornea became 
indistinct; the sight was improved and at a little distance a stranger 
could hardly perceive that it differed from the other eye. The father 
expressed much gratitude for the attention paid to his daughter and 
joy at the successful result of the treatment pursued. 

Sixth Report. The sixth quarterly report to May 4th, 1837, adds 
650 patients to the list. "The interest in the institution continues 
to increase, and the eagerness to enjoy its benefits was never greater 
than at present. The crowd of patients on the day of receiving them, 
now limited to once in two weeks, has been very great. Sometimes 
not less than 200 or 300 ; and on one occasion about 600 including 
their friends have been present in a single day." Among the cases 
reported may be mentioned the following : 

" Encysted tumor. Wangke, aged 12 years, of Shuntih. This 
little girl is a slave, and was sold by hei mother for JjjSS or -f 10. She 
was accompanied to the hospital by her purchaser, a very res- 
pectable and well bred Chinese woman, who said the child was not 
her offspring, yet she felt for her the affection of a mother, and 
though the blemish had been a sufficient excuse for returning her to her 
mother, she pieferred not to do so; and having heard of the hospital 
in Canton, was at the expense of time and money to bring her, with 
the hope of relief. She had an encysted tumor, about 16 inches in 
rircumference at the base, situated upon the sacrum, and to the ri<rht 



•17 

side. Its pressure had produced some absorption of the sacrum, and 
caused the os coccygis to turn outwards. It was movable, and 
hard pressure gave it no pain. There was no weakness of the 
spinal column or of the lower extremities. After suitable preparation 
of the patient it was removed, and found to be attached by a peduncle 
of the size of a common quill, which entered one of the posterior 
sacral foramina. On dividing it, one of the gentlemen who assisted 
noticed a slight flow of milky substance from the point of attach- 
ment. A ligature was required to prevent the escape of the fluid from 
the tumor, which was distended with limpid contents resembling a 
bladder of water. The wound was dressed as usual. The child was 
in a subcomatose state for some hours after the operation, and slow 
in answering when spoken to, — perhaps from the opiate she had 
taken. In the evening and the next morning, her pulse ranged from 
130 to 140, with considerable fever, and some anxiety was left for the 
result. Calomel and rhubarb were given, which brought away a quan- 
tity of large worms (lumbrici), and all her unpleasant symptoms sub- 
sided. The child's appetite became good, and the wound healed up 
by granulations in a little more than a month. She became the pic- 
ture of health, and, with cheeks plump and rosy, was discharged at 
the expiration of six weeks. 

" Hare lip. Lan Atang, aged 17 years, of Honan, was disfigured 
by this congenital malformation, which extended up into the left 
nostril, and two teeth projected out at the opening. These were 
removed and when the soreness subsided, the operation was perform- 
ed. The union was perfect, and the dressing removed in about one 
week. Both the appearance and voice were very much improved. 

"An operation is sometimes performed by native physicians for this 
deficiency. It consists in applying an escharotic between the edges 
of the lip, and as this sloughs out, the lips of the wound are brought 
together and healed up by granulations. I have seen four cases in 
which this operation has been performed. In one instance, the upper 
lip was drawn so tight as to form a straight line, with the under- 
lip projecting ; the appearance was very undesirable. Whether this 
was the fault of the operator or the necessity of the case did not ap- 
pear. In another man the lip was drawn askew." 

Sarcomatous tumor. Chang Achun, aged 43, had a large sarcoma- 
tous tumor upon the right side of 5 or 6 years growth. It was readi- 
ly removed, and afterwards weighed about 3 lbs., being 14 inches 
in circumference at the base, and still more around the centre. 
The wound healed almost entirely by the first intention, and in nine 
davs all the dressings were discontinued. 



4> 

Lin Akin, aged 12 years, 1 1 m 1 a sleatoiuatouti tumor on the right 

liip, its circumference (exceeding that of her body,) was two feel at the 
base and much larger at the middle. The parents having consented 
to an operation, the mass was removed and then weighed seven lbs. 
Union of the wound took place to a considerable extent and the 
whole was soon healed. " I am indebted to Lamqua (the Chinese 
artist) for an admirable likeness of the little girl, together with a 
good representation of the tumor. The more interesting cases that 
have been presented at the hospital, he has painted with equal suc- 
cess, and uniformly says, that as there is no charge for ' cutting,' he 
can make none for painting.'' 

"The relief afforded to cataract patients, of which there have been 
more than in any preceding term, has been much as usual. The dis- 
turbance to the eye from the operation is ordinarily as slight as that 
of opening a vein in the arm. 

" The gratitude and confidence increase rather than diminish. An 
old Tartar general, who had been some time in the hospital, and who 
was operated upon for cataract with which he was affected in both 
eyes, as he was leaving said, 'I am now eighty years old, my beard is 
very long (reaching his breast) ; 1 have been an officer forty years ; 
and have been in all the eighteen provinces of the empire; but never 
before have I known a man that does the things that you perform, 
and for which you receive no reward. Oh, what virtue! the great 
nation's arm ; under heaven there is no other like you :' and more in 
the same adulatory strain. It is a pleasure to go to the hospital at 
any hour of the twenty-four, and witness the confidence and kind 
feelings uniformly manifested by the inmates. Those who have re- 
ceived some especial benefit often seem to want language to express 
their gratitude. In some instances, the blind of a distant village 
have united and chartered a passage-boat to come to Canton, and have 
waited four or five days for the hospital to be opened to the admission 
of new patients. — -Justice to my own feelings requires a public and 
grateful acknowledgment to the meditcal and surgical gentlemen, 
Messrs. Cox, Anderson, Cullen, and Jardine, who have so frequently 
and kindly afforded their counsel and assistance in important ope- 
rations." 

Seventh Report. The seventh report, to December 31st, 1837, 
commences as follows : 

"Two years of this institution are now completed. During this pe- 
riod 4575 patients have been received, 1225 of whom have been admit- 
ted during the last term. Besides these, a number of old patients have 
been treated, who had relapses, or had new diseases. This report in- 



lit 

eludes the period from the 4tli of May lo the 31st of December, of 
which two months were spent in a voyage to Japan, and subsequent 
illness caused a suspension of the operations of the hospital for another 
month. It was reopened on the 1st of October, when it appeared, that 
a considerable number of patients, who had come a long distance, 
had taken up their residence in the city, and had waited, some a fort- 
night, and others a month or more, for the opening of the hospital." 

"May 12th. Injury from torture. Aching, a gardener in the vicinity 
of Canton, was accused by an envious relative to the government, as 
a smuggler and concealer of stolen goods. Accordingly, he was 
seized, and kept in the city a fortnight, sitting at the door of an 
office, as a culprit, and in the meantime was examined by torture, 
made to kneel on sharp spikes, and beaten upon his face and above 
his knees and ankles, in a most cruel manner. His fore teeth were 
knocked out. Twenty persons of his native village coming forward 
and testifying to his upright character, and offering their own heads 
if lie could be proved guilty, the innocent and industrious poor 
man was liberated, but not till after be had paid $300! His ankles 
and knees were in an ulcerated condition from the previous applica- 
tion of the bamboo. The wounds presently healed, and the man is 
again well. This case illustrates the baseness of his relative, and the 
cruelty and injustice of the officers of government. 

"May 22d. Cartilaginous tumor. Woo Pun, aged 41, a shoemaker 
of Pwanyu, had been afflicted seventeen years with a large unshapen 
tumor upon the left side of his neck. It hung pendulous from the 
submaxillary, extending backwards over the external jugular vein 
and carotid artery, forwards to the opposite side of the trachea, and 
downwards to the breast. Foi the last ten years its growth had been 
rapid, and from its magnitude it had become very cumbersome. It 
was as large as the man's head, and so hard as not to yield to the 
pressure of the thumb. Centrally it was diseased, and having been 
perforated by the escharotics of a Chinese practitioner, it emitted a 
most offensive discharge The aperture was half an inch in diameter, 
and as regular as if formed by a drill. The patient kept it closed 
with a stopple, every . morning evacuating some ounces of offensive 
fluid. His constitution had begun to suffer. On the I9th June, as. 
sisted by Messrs. Cox; Culleri, and Jardine, the tumor was removed 
in about five minutes. Several veins of considerable size were divided. 
In making the inferior horizontal incision, an inch of the integument 
above a large superficial artery, was not divided till the dissection of 
the luuior was nearly completed, and then, by compressing the arleiy 



before dividing it. very halt blood was lost. The lunior Ufaa i*vo Foet 
in circumference, mid weighed 7 lbs. The patient scarcely uttered a 
groan. In twenty minutes he was comfortably in bed. This was 
about I o'clock p. m. At 3 o'clock, and at 5 o'clock, his symptoms 
appeared favorable; and there was but little oozing of blood. At 9 
o'clock he complained of phlegm in his throat, and did not breathe 
so easily as usual, yet made no complaint that the bandage was too 
tight. His brother was depended upon to watch with him, ami to 
call me, if any change occurred. At 1 o'clock a. m., a servant called ; 
and when 1 arrived at the hospital the poor man was apparently gasp- 
ing his last. He was very bloody, and had evidently made a despe- 
vate struggle without success to loosen the bandage. The neck was 
instantly freed of the roller. His pulse was just perceptible; his ex- 
tremities were already cold; he foamed at the nose, and breathed 
stertorously, as in apoplexy. His mouth was immediately cleared of 
phlegm, and his nose of blood ; stimulants were applied and also ad- 
ministered internally, and bottles of warm water put to his feet. Fie 
soon revived and spoke, and his breathing became easy. 

" The dressing was loosely applied at first, but the incision being 
rather horizontal, nearly from ear to ear, the blood that settled upon 
i he lower side, not escaping, acted as a wedge, causing suffocaliou. 
Probably the brother fell asleep, and was awakened only by the almost 
dying struggles of the patient. Two or three minutes delay in coming 
to his relief might have been too late ! After reapplying the dressing, 
he had a comfortable night, and in one month was perfectly recovered. 
He has repeatedly visited the hospital. His constitution has wonder- 
fully recovered from the inroads of the disease, and he again enjoys 
excellent health, and evinces unbounded gratitude. He seems to re- 
gard the favor received, as conferring on him full liberty to introduce 
any and all his diseased friends. This is very uniformly the case 
wilh such as have received any especial benefit. [ know not upon 
what principle of human nature to explain it, unless it be that of 
implicit confidence.'' 

Schirrus breast. Mo she, aged 48, had been afflicted with cance. 
rous breast, for six years, with severe lancinating pain — axillary 
glands not affected The breast was removed and the woman rapid- 
ly and perfectly recovered. " This is the first instance in which I 
have been called on for the extirpation of the female breast from a 
Chinese, and few operations could exhibit in a stronger light, their 
confidence in foreign surgery, yet it was submitted to with the ut- 
most cheerfulness." Afterwards the woman brought a friend with >i 
similar disease, which was also successfully operated on. 



Yawg tltfi, aged -JO, hail an immense tumor pendant from the chin 
and larynx often years' growth, and Ibrni the last six years lias been 
very cumbersome. The attachment beneath the chin was five inches 
ifl circumference. Centrally and horizontally it measured two feet 
three inches, vertically three feet two inches, and extended below the 
umbilicus, but not so as to rest on the lap, and from its great weight 
it produced much inconvenience to the patient in all her movements, 
and the muscles on the back of the neck were prelernaturally large, 
having been in constant action. Being in her fifth month of preg- 
nancy the case was the more critical, but at the urgent request of 
her friends and with the approbation of several medical gentlemen, 
the tumor was removed. With the exception of a single point an inch 
in diameter, the tumor was perfectly distinct from the surrounding 
parts. The wound healed kindly without any unpleasant symptoms. 
Her first attempts to walk were somewhat awkward having lost so 
much " ballast." In 17 days she was discharged quite well. Some 
months afterwards she returned in excellent health and spirits, bring- 
ing her robust little son two months old. 

1 Here 1 close the review of the institution, during its two years 
existence. Of the 4575 patients that have been received, many are 
remembered, as well as their deep solicitude, and that of their friends, 
as they have waited to know their prospects, and their joy when they 
have been relieved. The recollection of hundreds that will never 
more see light, has revived the sorrowful sensation previously felt. 
They were too late. Some of the latter class were just entering upon 
life; they were in perfect health, but, for the want of timely assis- 
tance, the orb of light has been to them early and totally extinguish- 
ed. There is some mitigation, however, in the reflection, that, whilst 
various surgical operations have been performed, through the Divine 
blessing, none have proved fatal; that many young persons have been 
saved from a life of blindness, and that others have regained the vision 
actually and (without some kind interposition) forever lost. It has 
often been delightful to witness parents again enjoying the sight of 
their children, whose prattlings and blooming countenances had never 
more greeted their eyes, had not the cataract been thrust aside. From 
many, those protuberances and incumbrances, which rendered their 
possessors monsters, and life a burden, have been successfully remov- 
ed. The cancer, threatening its victim with death, has been once 
and again extirpated from a mother's bosom. The misplaced, and 
in some instances large, reservoirs of useless and cumbersome fluid, 
have been dried up, and health has again smiled upon the previously 



despondent sister and parent. To these results, the friend and be- 
nefactors, who have so promptly sustained the institution, are referred 
as their best reward, whilst the most grateful acknowledgments aie 
tendered them, in behalf of the thousands whom their charity has bene- 
fited. Especially thanks are due to the medical gentlemen, who have 
repeatedly and so cheerfully lent their impoitant aid, particularly to 
Messrs. R. H. Cox, and A. Anderson, who have continued ther valu- 
able assistance each week upon the day devoted to operations. And 
also to William Jardine, esq., who notwithstanding he has long ceased 
from practice, retains all his interest in his former profession, and, 
even in the pressure of business in one of the largest commercial 
houses in Canton, has ever found leisure to attend to the call of suf- 
fering humanity. Facts are constantly occurring, which show the in- 
creasing confidence of the Chinese in foreign surgery, and the widen- 
ing extent to which the knowledge of the operations has spread. As 
illustrative of the former, Howqua, the senior hong-merchant, has 
presented $300 to the institution; and in proof of the latter, numbers 
have come journey of several weeks to avail themselves of its benefits. 
A district magistrate from the province of Hoopih, in the interior of 
China, has come a journey of six weeks to be treated for blindness, 
and is now an inmate of the hespital. 

"The importance of training young men for the medical profession 
in China was early felt, and I am happy to state, that three youths, of 
good promise, of the ages of 10, 17, and 19 years, are now connected 
with the hospital. They have already made respectable proficiency in 
the English language, and are of valuable assistance in compounding 
medicines, and administering the prescriptions. The eldest is a res- 
ponsible and active youth, and besides his tuition, receives $5 per 
mouth wages. Some minor operations upon the eye, as for entropia 
and pterygium, he has dexterously performed: he has served now 
more than a year. The second is the farthest advanced of the three, 
in his own language, having been designed for a literary life, till the 
death of his father (who held an office in government), more than a 
year since, deprived him of the means of pursuing his studies. He is 
partly sustained by the Morrison Education Society. The third, 
who is a young man of good talents, is wholly supported by his father, 
and is to remain at least five years. 

" I cannot close this report, without adverting to another circum- 
stance, not the least interesting to those who have at heart the best 
welfare of this empire. I refer to the opportunities constantly pre- 
sented of exhibiting the spirit ami principles of our most holv religion; 



ol i're(|iiciitly pointing out to iliem t ho consequences of vice, and of 
inculcating principles of temperance and morality. Season* peculiarly 
favorable occur of showing them the vanity and falsity of idols, and 
of making them acquainted with the true God. And these advantages 
will increase, as our knowledge of their lano-ua^e and religion in- 
creases, and as we are advanced in their confidence and obligation." 

Eighth Report. The eighth report, from January 1st to June 
30th, 1838, mentions 10*25, as the number of new applicants during 
the half year. Many cases presented themselves of considerable in- 
terest during the term. Eighty-four cases of cataract have been at 
the hospital making a total of 466 since the opening of the institu- 
tion. In the usual routine it occurred on one occasion in the last 
term, that 14 patients were operated upon for this affection at the 
same setting. Several instances are recollected of spontaneous ab- 
sorption of the cataract, but in only two cases did the patients regain 
their sight. One of these had tolerable vision. 

" It is with gratitude to Him, to whose blessing it is to be ascrib- 
ed, that we once more repeat the fact, that no fatal termination has 
attended as yet an operation at the hospital, though in two or three 
instances of great intricacy there has been but a hair's breadth es- 
cape from death. This circumstance no doubt has had an important 
influence in producing the unbounded confidence of all who apply 
for relief, among whom have been, the past term, persons of various 
ranks, and from the remote parts of the empire, from Ningpo on the 
east, and Peking on the north, to the borders of Tartary on the west. 
The generous remittances of medicines, surgical instruments, and a 
skeleton, from friends in New York and Philadelphia, demand and 
receive our most grateful acdnowledgment." 

First Report of the Society's Hospital at Macao from July 5th 
to October 1st, 1838 thus commences: 

" In accordance with a desire expressed at a general meeting of 
the Society in May last, the hospital at Macao was opened on the 5th 
of July. Previous engagements to return to Canton, and the absence 
of any other medical gentleman to take charge of the establishment, 
rendered it necessary temporarily to close it on the 1st of October. 
It is with great pleasure that the report for this term is now submitted 
to the Society and its friends. 

"Often has the sincerest graiitued been felt towards the benevolent 
members of this Society, who have procured such an asylum for 
the afflicted Chinese, and to the respected President by whose judg- 
ment the spot was selected, when, — walking thro'igh its capacjoug 



iiikI numerous apartments, — I have witnessed the comfortable arc.nm- 
iiiodations afforded lo llie inmates, to many of whom it seemed al. 
most a palace, in comparison with the narrow cells which they call 
their homes. The building is capable of accommodating two hun- 
dred patients. It has nineteen spacious rooms on the second story, 
well ventilated, and as many corresponding ones on the ground floor ; 
a garden, and extensive compound, with three wells of water in 
the rear; and a yard in front. The building is of brick, strongly 
built ; and the whole of the ground (say a third of an acre) belong- 
ing to it is surrounded by a substantial wall. It is in a healthy 
locality, overlooking the Inner Haibor, and has easy access both by 
land and water. 

" It is delightful to contemplate the yearly augmenting relief that 
may here be afforded to the suffering Chinese. It is cheering and 
encouraging to regard the facilities that here exist, for the instruction 
of the young men of China in the principles of rational medicine and 
surgery. May the institution prosper every way — may there be no 
lack of men to conduct its operations, or of means to support and in- 
crease its usefulness — may it be the fruitful parent of many like 
institutions, under the conduct of Chinese, who shall have acquired 
the skill and science of the west, and shall have imbibed the benevo- 
lence and purity of the gospel. 

" Seven hundred patients were received into the Hospital during 
the term, towards the close of which many had to be sent away, from 
the inexpediency of receiving them for a few days only. Fewer im- 
portant surgical cases presented themselves, in proportion to the 
whole number, than had previously been the case at Canton. With 
a few exceptions, the task of gaining the confidence of the people 
had to be commenced de iiubo. The suspicion and reserve at first 
manifested were greater than ever at Canton. The arrival, however, 
as patients, of gentlemen from Canton, and occasional visits of some 
who had been cured there, and of others personally acquainted with 
previous operations, tended very much to alter the feelings of the peo- 
ple. An unexpected auxiliary in eliciting this change was found, 
too, in sundry of their idols, who, according to the interpretation of 
the Chinese priests, encouraged a large number of their votaries to 
apply to the foreign physician with asssurance of success." 

Among several cases worthy of notice is one of special interest 
from the circumstances attending it. 

"July 13th. Cataracts. The history of this man's case is intro- 
duced in his own words. 'Ting Hwantsung, aged 65, of the district 



Tailing in the department Shuntei?(ij of ihc province of'Oheihle, h.i^ 
l»een on the civil list of this province for 30 years, and is now in 
expectation of the appointment of assistant magistrate. — I am at 
present residing in the street Teenkwan, within the city of Canton. 
On the 19th I embarked, and eariy on the 22d arrived at Macao, and 
I now earnestly beseech the doctor to heal my blindness. In the 15th 
year of Taoukwang (1835), and the seventh month, my right eye be- 
came diseased, and at this time I am unable to see light. In the second 
month of the present year I was grievously afflicted, by carelessly 
taking cold. Under medical treatment my disease ceased, but after- 
wards the eye became daily more and more blind, and now only a 
glimmering of light remains. I earnestly entreat the doctor to heal 
me: my gratitude will thfln be boundless.' 

" The gentleman had cataracts completely formed in both eyes, 
and upon the cornea of the right eye was a slight nebula. The cata- 
racts were depressed in both eyes. No inflammation followed in either, 
the lens in the left eye partially arose, and in a fortnight from the first 
operation, was re-depressed with success. At the expiration of three 
weeks, the patient was told he might return to his family whenever 
he chose. He wished to remain longer, and it was not till the first 
of September that he left. Previous to his return, he dined with me 
in European style, after which he was delighted to see the ships in the 
harbor from the terrace and pointed out the elevations on the oppo- 
site side of the Inner Harbor, and said, that ' his heart dilated with 
gratitude in proportion as his eyes were opened to the light.' This 
man was attended by a son 40 years old, and three servants. His 
deportment was uniformly that of a gentleman, and he was always 
ready to communicate intelligence, upon whatever subject interrogat- 
ed. Being from the vicinity of Peking, it was interesting to learn 
from him the customs, and to gain local information of that part of 
the country, and in return to answer his numerous and intelligent 
inquiries respecting the nations of the west. 

"Since my return to Canton, he has called and reported himself in 
excellent health. He informed me that since recovering his sight he 
had received a new appointment from government, and was immedi- 
ately to go to the part of the province in which he was to enter upon 
the discharge of the duties of his new office, rejoicing in a second 
youth. His case is mentioned, not for anything worthy of especial 
notice in a medical light, but as an example of the advantages the 
hospital will afford for free intcroursc with Chinese of respectability 
and inU'lliii'Mico 



Twelve c;ises of harelip Were operated on, ainJ relief from the dis- 
figurement afforded. The fortitude of these little children has been 
very noticeable, they appearing, often through the whole operation, 
almost insensible to pain. 

The disappointment of patients who came in numbers up to the 
time of leaving, increased the regret that no medical gentleman had 
arrived from England or America, to continue the operations. The 
additions and repairs to the hospital at Canton having been complet- 
ed, and the period having arrived, when according to public notice 
previously given, it should be reopened, it was impossible to prolong 
the term at Macao ; and the hospital was accordingly closed on the 
1st of October. 

The ninth report from October 1st to December 31st, 1838, 
presented at the end of the third year during which the hospital has 
been open, thus commences : 

" To the friends and supporters of the Medical Missionary Society 
in China, the following report will afford new pleasure. It evinces the 
steadily advancing influence and importance of the Society's opera- 
tions. The growing confidence reposed by the people in the skill of 
the foreign surgeon has been strongly displayed, in the degree of 
readiness with which they submit to painful operations, and even to 
the loss of limbs — although this is so greatly opposed to their preju- 
dices, as well as to their principle, that the body, received perfect in 
form from one's parents, should be committed in no less perfection of 
form to its last resting place in the womb of earth. A Chinese fe- 
male (the first, so far as we know, at least in modern times) has 
submitted to the amputation of her right arm; and four others have 
undergone extirpation of their breasts, on account of cancerous disease 
in an advneed stage. — Their increasing reliance on the western 
physician's knowledge of disease and its cures has been shown, in 
the accession of an unusually large number of official persons, some 
of them men of high station. 

"Among these, may be mentioned Wang, acting judicial commis- 
sioner of this province, who was first seen, at the commercial 
house of one of the hong-merchants. The chief object of this gentle- 
man was to be enabled so to appear and report himself before the 
emperor, that want of health might not stand in the way of his pro- 
motion. He was immensely corpulent, and his chair was carried 
by four bearers (the number allotted to his rank), with an equal 
number of supporters. His complaint was hemiphleaia. His desires 
were very moderate: it would entirely satisfy him if he could but walk 



twenty rods, and be enabled to go through the requisite ceremonies of 
kneeling and bowing in the presence of bis superiors. As be is still 
under treatment, the particulars of his case will be given hereafter. A- 
nother visitor of rank was Lew, the chief magistrate of the district in 
which the factories are situated, and the officer, consequently, who 
appeared, so acceptably to foreigners — to disperse the mob collected 
before the factories — on the memorable 12th of December, when 
a little longer delay might have placed their lives and property in 
imminent jeopardy. The application of this officer is especially inte- 
resting, as, from his situation, he is the proper authority to take cog- 
nizance of the hospital, had it fallen, as an innovation, under the 
displeasure of the local government. But by personally receiving aid 
from it, and by speaking of it in terms of commendation to his 
friends, he is virtually sanctioning it, and giving it influence among 
the people, by whom it is extensively known that through it he has 
been essentially benefited. His nephew, and several of his friends, 
have also been received as patients, and some are still under medical 
treatment. In one of his visits he likewise introduced Hing-an, a 
footseiing or colonel, who had recently been in command of the 
forces stationed in defense of the capital of Kwangse, and was then 
on his way to Peking. This officer was suffering from rheumatism: as 
he did not return a second time, he was probably compelled to con- 
tinue his journey to Peking sooner than he had at first anticipated. 
One other officer may here be named — Lew, scunpou (a civilian, 
whose function is nearly that of a European aid-de-camp) to the go- 
vernor of these provinces. Unlike the others just mentioned — who 
have preferred their request for medical attendance through Howqua, 
or some other of the hong-merchants, and have arranged to be seen 
at the commercial houses of those gentlemen, in preference to coming 
with the multitude to the hospital — this officer came to the institution, 
and on one occasion remained to witness the operations that were 
being performed. He was much interested to see the depression of 
a cataract, to hear the patient, who had been blind for several years, 
exclaim, immediately on the removal of the needle, 'I see light!' and 
to observe her count, in a minute after, the fingers held up before her. 
He was particular in his inquiries, wishing to know how long she had 
been blind, if much harm would not follow the operation, &c. On 
Iris return, a week after, he found the patient had already been dis- 
charged, not the slightest inflammation having followed, and her 
sleep at night nut having been m the least degree disturbed. 



58 

" These encouraging circumstances, notwithstanding, it ought not 
to be supposed that all prejudice is yet overcome. Instances to the 
contrary occasionally occur. At the particular desire of a friend, a 
brother of one of the hong-merchants, who was considered dange- 
rously ill, requested to be attended, at his own house. He was found 
very sick, but apparently not beyond the power of European medi- 
cine to recover. A favorable prognosis was given, which had the 
undesirable effect of encouraging him to try native remedies still lon- 
ger. The danger of a day's delay was pointed out: it might involve 
fatal consequences ; it would be the height of folly to defer calling a 
fire-engine to a burning house until after all other means of extin- 
guishing the flames should be first tried — an argument likely to be 
well understood by a Chinese: but remonstrances were in vain. 
'The foreigner's prescription,' said the sufferer, 'I cannot read, atid 
how can I know what he is giving me.' It is in accordance with 
Chinese habits to see the prescriptions of their own physicians, and of 
men acquainted with books, many have studied the different medical 
theories that are upheld among them, and pretend to some knowledge 
of the pulse, the diseases of which it affords diagnosis, and the appro- 
priate remedies. Yielding to his prejudices, the patient, after, trying 
a little longer his own physicians, died a victim to his folly. Just 
before his death, he desired the foreign physician to be again called 
in, but it was then too late. 

"The first instance of death, supervening upon an operation, the 
circumstances of which will lie hereafter given, has occurred during 
the past term, and the result alio illustrates the degree of confidence 
that generally exists. The husband was asleep by the patient's side 
when sl(e died. On being informed of her decease, he pointed 
upward, saying, 'heaven hus determined it,' and so far from regret- 
mg the operation, he justly remarked, 'she would not have lived so 
long as she has done, but for the medicine and care she has received 
at the hospital.' A similar event in any European hospital could 
not have been attended with less unpleasantness, or have been better 
understood. The same operation, too, has since been submitted to 
with all the confidence and cheerfulness manifested in previous in- 
stances. 

" During the months of July, August, and September, the hospital 
was closed and under repair, and that at Macao was meanwhile 
opened, as shown by the Report of that hospital already published. 

"The patients that have been admitted during the term are 505, 
the aggregate since the opening of the institution is 6300." 



59 

Among many cases of considerable interest, there is one, which 
though medic illy of importance, is still more so as exhibiting some 
of the peculiarities of this people. 

"October 3t)th, 1838. Osteo-medullary sarcoma of the right wrist. 
Leaug Yen, a female aged 34, from the neighborhood of Fa Te, 
'the flower gardens.' In October, 1837, the disease commenced, at 
the head of the radius, and it had gradually increased until it now 
measured one foot seven inches around the wrist, and about the same 
at its base. It had never been remarkably painful, neither had the 
discharge of blood been great. The patient's countenance was very 
sallow, and face and extremities generally edematous, particularly 
on the right side. The monthly discharges were interrupted about 
the time the disease began. The patient had a morbH appetite, 
eating as much as in health. Pulse feeble and frequent; occasionally 
a few grains of blue pill and colocynth were administered, and opiates 
at night, with a view of improving her general health. Several me- 
dical gentlemen saw the patient, and among them Dr. Guilbert of the 
French frigate L'Artemise. All were agreed that it was advisable to 
amputate the arm, without delay. Though the patient did not un- 
derstand what was spoken, she learned or surmised, from a gesture 
inadvertently made, that amputation was proposed, and with great 
determination subsequently remarked to another, that she would 
sooner die than submit to the operation. In a few days the state of 
the case was explained to her, that in the opinion of several medical 
men she could not live long unless the arm was removed, that the 
operation would not be extremely painful, and that it was her only 
chance for protracting life. She urged her helplessness without her 
right hand, but admitted it was better that one limb should be 
sacrificed, than the whole body. However, in a few days, she resolv- 
ed to go home. After about twenty days she returned, manifestly 
improved in her health from the medicine she had taken, though the 
fungus had increased. The operation was again proposed to her and 
her husband. Each consented, but as it was an extraordinary affair 
he wished first to consult her relations. He did so, and wrote back 
that they confided entirely in my judgment, but ill health prevented 
his returu. 

" The patient still consented; the 5th of Dec. was fixed upon for 
the operation, and on the previous evening everything was in readi- 
ness ; but the next morning when visited, she, with a toss of her head, 
emphatically exclaimed, 'No cutting! no cutting!' and holding up 
two fingers she added, ' give 200 dollars and you may.' This patient 



60 

is nn exception lo all that- have over yet visilei) the hospital. She 
quite misunderstood tin- kindness lliaHind been shown her. Food, 
and a female servant to attend constantly upon her, had been- pro- 
vided; and — when, hearing that her husband's hestflh would not 
permit him to return to see the operation, she expressed a fear that if 
he was absent, and she should not perfectly recover, he might declitre 
supporting her — she was assured that if he deserted her, she should 
be provided for. It seemed at this time that she thought me anxious 
to mutilate her, and that I would give her a price to do it. This, 
however, she subsequently disclaimed, and said that it had been sug- 
gested to her by another, that if she could obtain this sum, it would 
make htr independent of her husband for support. In a few days 
the man came, and begged my forgiveness, and observed that it was 
not the Chinese custom to expect the physician to pay for healing 
his patient. She also seemed ashamed for her ingratitude; and both 
desired that the arm should be amputated, and gave the usual indem- 
nity, which was the more necessary as the patient had by long delay 
become very feeble. She was just able to be lifted from her bed to 
the table. A medical gentleman who saw her on Monday, learning 
that it was proposed to amputate the arm on Wednesday, expressed 
his opinion, that she would not live to see the day. It was noticeable 
a few days before this, that the pulse at the bend of the right arm 
was otdy 90, while it was 112 in the wrist of the other: but the mo- 
mentum was proportionally greater in the right arm. On the 12th of 
December, during the time of the attempted execution of an opium 
dealer, and the consequent riot, in the front of the factories, all was 
quiet at the hospital, and the operation was performed The arm 
was removed by the flap operation, four inches above the elbow. An 
opiate was administered half an hour before the time" for operation, 
also five grains of blue pill, and ten of ext. of rhubarb. The patient 
after her decision was fully formed contemned the idea of pain, aiyl at 
the moment of sawing the bone inquired when that part of the process 
would take place. She had a comfortable night following, and the 
bowels were moved in the morning, her pulse being 114, and rather 
feeble. Her appetite soon became strong, and on the loth was 
indulged quite lo the jeopardy of her health, when, briny called to 
her, the abdomen was found much distended, the pulse accelerated, 
skin hot, and respiration very difficult. An ounce of castor oil was 
immediately adminis'ered. The next morning, she was again com- 
fortable. On the 16th, the arm was dressed, and the lips of the 
wound had united to a considerable extent in I'usi intention. On the 



Ill 

17th abo.ul noon, I found her with a bowl of oily sausages, which she 
was devouring even without rice. When told not to eat them, she 
was much displeased, and quite lost her temper. For a few days she 
had diarrhoea, which yielded to the effects of opium, hydrargyrum 
cum creta, aud castor oil. On the 14th day after the operation, the 
ligature came away, the wound being healed except at the point of 
the ligature. From the moment the arm was removed, the patient 
began to be convalescent, and she declared, she was more comforta- 
ble the night after the operation than on that preceding. 

"The examination of the forearm evinced the propriety of the am- 
putation above the elbow. The disease evidently commenced in the 
marrow of the radius and near its head, aud then involved the bones 
and soft parts in the common disease. The radius and ulna were 
diseased as far as the elbow, the marrow having assumed a brownish 
hue. The tumor was surrounded by a plate of bone the thickness of 
the pericranium, which being sawed through exposed a mass of mat- 
ter of the consistency of brain. There were a few apertures at 
which this medullary substance had protruded and expanded itself 
like a mushroom. 

" About the 10th January, the patient was told tint she might go 
home whenever she pleased, but she preferred remaining still longer 
where everything was provided for her. 

"On the 19th January, the husband having returned for her, she 
was discharged in excellent spirits, and both were very thankful. 
The action of the liver had been excited, her skin had become soft 
and natural, and the prospect is that she may live for years, and 
enjoy good health. The opportunity was improved to impress 
upon them their obligaiions to the living God, and Author of all their 
mercies." 

The case of Lew, magislinte of Nanhae, which comprises half the 
city of Canton, is also deserving of attention ; but our limits will not 
permit its .introduction here. He was affected with nephritis and 
constipation; and by appropriate treatment continued for some weeks, 
considerable relief was afforded, for which he was very grateful; and 
did: not fail to express, both in words and actions, his sense of 
the obligation. 

. " The erroneous deductions that have been made, here and else- 
where, from the small number of opium patients, deserve correction. 
The institution is ostensibly for the cure of ophthalmic diseases; all 
other affections are exceptions. Of more than HOtlO patients but 
about half a dozen cases of fevers are reported : yet Canton and its 



6-2 

vicinity enjoy no peculiar exemption from this class of diseases So 
of all diseases — excepting those of the eye, and others strictly surgi- 
cal — very few of them are ever noticed in the institution. It is evi- 
dent, therefore, that an ophthalmic hospital affords no criteria, by 
which we can ascertain the number of opium-smokers, who are 
suffering from that habit. Besides the specific character of the hos- 
pital, it should be known, that comparatively few of the victims to 
the opium mania have moral resolution remaining sufficient to attempt 
an emancipation from its most deplorable effects. Personal observa- 
tion has furnished abundant evidence of the appalling extent of the 
evil. Repeated instances have occurred in which officers have 
assured me they have been addicted to the vice, some 20 and others 
30 years and more, and though they would give large sums of money 
never to have formed the habit, they despair of recovering from it. 
To say that tens of thousands in this city and vicinity, including 
women as well as men, use the drug, would, it is believed, be a mo- 
derate estimate. In some other districts and provinces, the number is 
said to be still greater than in Canton. 

Tenth Report, being that for 1839, thus notes some of the pa- 
tients who have been relieved : 

" Among the more distinguished personages who have directly or 
indirectly, availed themselves of the benefils that the institution af- 
fords, were — Ho»vqua, the senior hong-merchant, — Tsun, an officer 
from Yunnan, — Lew, magistrate of Nanhae, and his brother, — 
Wang, a commissioner or intendant of circuit in Kwangse, son of 
the Wang tazhin of Macartney's embassy, — the gancha sze, the poo- 
ching sze, heads of the judicial and the financial and territorial af- 
fairs, of this province,) — and, not least, the high imperial commission- 
er, of whom all have heard so much. 

"The total number of patients that have been admitted and their 
names recorded, during the year 1839, has been 800: the aggregate 
number since the commencement of the institution in November of 
1836,— about 7000. 

" Wang, a taoutae, or intendant of circuit, from Kwangse, and late- 
ly acting as judicial commissioner here, who was alluded to in the 
last report as being effected with patalysis of the left side, is still a pa- 
tient. When the foreigners were immured within their factories, and 
he was unable to obtain foreign aid, he applied to a native practition- 
er ; and, when called to him again, which was not till the 1st of 
November, he was found in a sad condition. His legs were dropsi- 
cal, and swollen to an enormous degree, and the old gentleman ex- 
pressed his anxious fears that he must soon die. 



" Laxatives and diuretics were immediately prescribed, winch 
removed the swelling of his legs and other dropsical symptoms with 
almost incredible rapidity; and by careful attention to his diet and 
regulation of his bowels, his general health has wonderfully improv- 
ed ; general remedies for his palsy have been employed — bleeding 
from the arm and along the spine, blisters, strychnine continued 
until the full effects of it were manifested on the system, electricity, 
&c. The paralysis still continues, however; but excepting that, he is 
now in good health and eats, drinks, and sleeps, as well as ever. 

" He is an amusing, talkative, old gentleman, and is very fond of 
dwelling on the circumstance of his father being one of the legates 
attending lord Macartney's embassy from Teentsin to Peking, the 
Van tazhin of the account of that mission. After Mak'a'rney, 
S'tan'ton, and Thoma S'tan'ton, (lord Macartney, sir G. L. Staunton, 
and his son, then a little boy, the present sir George Thomas Staun- 
ton), he has often inquired with interest ; he even wears, at this 
day, a pair of spectacles given by sir G. L. Staunton to his father. 
For a number of his friends, male and female, in Kwangse, where 
his family yet remains, medicines have, at his earnestly reiterated 
inlreaties, been prescribed, after careful endeavors to understand 
their cases from his minute explanations." 



REGULATIONS 

OF THE MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Passed in the form of Resolutions, at a General 

Meeting at Canton, Feb. 2lst, 183H. 

Object. 

I. That, in order to give a wider extension, and a permanency, to 
the efforts that have already been made to spread the benefits of 
rational medicine and surgery among the Chinese, a Society be 
organized at Canton, under the name of the Medical Missionary 
Society in China: That the object of this Society be, to encourage 
gentlemen of the medical profession to come and practice gratuitously 
among the Chinese, by affording the usual aid of hospitals, medicine, 
and attendants: But that the support or remuneration of such medical 
gentlemen be not at present within its contemplation. 

O F f i c e k s . 

II. That the officers of this Society consist of a President,! Vice- 
presidents, a Recording Secretary, a Corresponding Secretary, a 
Treasurer, and an Auditor of accounts, — to be elected by ballot, an- 
nually: That these officers collectively form a Committee of Ma. 
nagement, for performing the business of the Society: That, in the 
absence of the President, tbe duties of his office be performed by the- 
senior Vice-president, that is, by the Vice-president whose name shall 
stand first in order on the ballot list : That any vacancy occurring 
between the annual meetings be filled up by the committee : And 
that the Secretaries and Treasurer render every year a Report of the 
operations of the Society. 

Members. 

III. That persons subscribing fifteen dollars annually be considered 
members of the Society during the period of their subscription : That 
donors to the amount of one hundred dollars at one time be constituted 
members for life : And that donors of five hundred dollars at a time 
be constituted directors for life. 

Meetings. 

IV. That an annual meeting of the Society be held on the last 
Thursday of September, in each year, for the election of officers and 
the transaction of general business : That the President be empower- 
ed to call a special meeting of the Society, at the request of the com- 
mittee of management, or on the application of five members: And 
that the committee regulate the times of its own meetings. 



65 

L I B R A R V . 

V. That this association shall have a Library, to be called 'the 
Library of the Medical Missionary Society in China,' and to be under 
the control of the committee of management, by which donations of 
books, &c, may be accepted. 

A N AT OMICAL M US BUM. 

VI. That this Society form a museum of natural and morbid 
anatomy, paintings of extraordinary diseases, &c, to be called ' the 
Anatomical Museum of the Medical Missionary Society in China,' 
and to be under the control of the committee of management. 

Trustees. 

VII. That all real estate or other property belonging to the Society 
be held on behalf of the same by a Board of Trustees, to consist of 
the President, the Treasurer, and the Auditor of accounts. 

Qualifications of medical men employed. 

VIII. That candidates for the patronage of the Society must furnish 
satisfactory certificates of their medical education, approved of by the 
society sending them out, — with testimonials from some religious body 
as to their piety, prudence, and correct moral and religious character. 

Duties of such medical men. 
XI. That this Society will not assume the right to control any 
individual acting under its patronage, or to interfere with or modify 
the instructions he may have received from the society sending him 
out: That it will, however, expect a strict observance of any general 
regulations for the management of its institutions, and a diligent 
study of some one dialect of the Chinese tongue, on the part of those 
who receive its patronage : And that it will reserve to itself the right 
of withdrawing its patronage, at the discretion of the committee of 
management, from any indivdual who may, from non-compliance with 
its regulations, or from other causes, incur its displeasure. 
Hospital register. 

X. That at each institution under the patronage of the Society, a 
book shall be kept, in which shall be inserted, in a fair and legible 
hand, an account of all important medical or surgical cases : And 
that, in order that this may not interfere with the other important 
duties of the Physician or Surgeon, any assistance necessary for keep- 
in" such a register shall be defrayed by the Society. 

Foreign agents. 

XI. That the Committee of Management be empowered to ap- 
point agents in Great Britain and America, to receive and transmit 
lo them any sums thai may be paid on hehalf of this Society. 



66 

B Y - L A W S 

1. The committee shall meet in the first Tuesday in January, 
April, July, and October, respectively, or, oftener if necessary, for 
the transaction of business. 

2. The Recording Searetary, in concurrence with any two other 
members of the committee, may call special meetings. 

3. Voting by proxy will be allowed to persons necessarily absent 
from the place of meeting, provided the proxy produce a letter of 
authority for specific measures, written within one month of the time 
of meeting. 

4. Five persons shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of 
business at a general meeting; and three at a committee meeting. 

5. At the meetings of the Society and of the committee, the pre- 
sident, or, in his absence one of the vice-presidents, following the 
order of priority on the list of officers, shall preside. 

6. The recording secretary shall keep full and accurate minutes 
of all the meetings, both of the committee and of the Society — those 
of the former shall always be vouched by his non-signature, and those 
of the latter shall be signed both by him and the presiding officer. 

7. The corresponding secretary shall conduct the foreign corres- 
pondence of the committee, except in cases that may be otherwise 
provided for; and he shnll keep a full record of all his correspon- 
dence, for the inspection of the committee. 

8. Candidates for the Society's patronage must present their 
credentials to the president, or senior vice-president, who, with one 
of the vice-presidents, following the order abovenamed, and the two 
secretaries, shall examine, and, if they see fit, accept such person, — 
their proceedings, however, always being subject to the approval of 
the whole committee, and finally to that of the Society itself if 
necessary. 

9. All books in the Medical Missionary Society shall be labeled, 
and a catalogue of them kept by a librarian, under the direction of 
the committee; and it shall be the duty of the librarian to take care 
of the books, and to make them accessible to all those who are in the 
service of the Society. 

10. All articles in the museum of the Medical Missionary Society, 
duly labeled, shall be placed in charge of a person, appointed by the 
committee for that purpose. 

11 The occupancy of the buildings, the use of instruments, <Soc, 
brlonging to the Society, with all disbursements of money, shall be 
under the control of the committee for the time being 



et 



TRUSTEES. 

Thomas .Richardson Colledge, esq., Warren - Delano, jun., esq., 

William Leslie, esq. 



J. Archer, esq. 
Lancelot Dent, esq 
J. C. Green, esq. 
Robert Inolis, esq. 



DIRECTORS FOR LIFE. 

William Jardine, esq 
! 

J. Matheson, esq. 

Framjee Pestonjee, esq. 

J. C. VVhiteman, esq. 



A. Anderson esq. 

J. H. Astell, esq. 

Thomas Keale, esq. 

W. Bell, esq. 

W. Blenkin, esq. 

Rev. E. C. Bridoman. 

W. Carr esq. Calcutta. 

T. R. Colledge, esq. 

J. Covert, eBq. 

F. M. Davidson, esq. 

K. Diooles, esq. Manila, 

Wm. B. Diver, m. d. 

Captain C. Elliot, a. n. 

T. Fox, esq. 

Hon. H. Garlino. Malacca. 

Thomas Gemhell, esq. 

O. H. Gordon, esq. 

J. Hamilton, esq. (deceased.) 

W. H. Harton, esq. 

A. Hay, esq. Singapore. 

Capt. A. Henderson. 

Capt. J. Hine, H. c. 8. 

A. R. Johnston, esq. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 

Andrew Johnston, esq. 

A. S. Keatino, esq. (deceased.) 

J. Innes, esq. (deceased.) 

T. H. Layton, esq. 

H. H. Lindsay, esq. 

A. Matheson, esq. 

J. R. Morrison, esq. 

G. G. Nicol, esq. 

D. W. C. Olyphant, esq. 

Captain E. Parry. 

W. R. Paterson, esq. Glasgow. 

A. Robertson, esq. 

Sjb G. B. Robinson, Bart. 

John Slade esq. 

G. C. Sciuvabe, esq. 

J. P. Sturois, esq. 

W. Thomson, esq. 

R. Turner, esq. (deceased.) 

Woo Tunyuen (Howq.ua.) 

W. S. Wetmore, esq. 

S. Wetmore, jun., esq. 

Henry Wrioht, esq. 

Yeeh Vuenchano (Footae.) 



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